Validity of the Emotion Regulation of Self Scale among Runners


The Emotion Regulation of Other and Self scale (EROS: Niven, Totterdell, Stride, & Holman, 2011) was originally designed to assess strategies used to increase both pleasant and unpleasant emotions in a range of situations and over a 4 week period. The aim of the present study was to cross-validate the scale in a specific situation and over a shorter timeframe, specifically in sport competition. Participants (N = 700) completed the EROS scale whilst recalling strategies within an hour of competing in a running race of personal importance. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicate some support for the integrity of a two-factor model. Factor loadings indicated limitations with items designed to assess behavioral strategies to increase pleasant emotions and also unpleasant emotions. After removing these weak-loading items and reanalyzing data, results indicated acceptable fit indices. We suggest the scale has some utility in running but recommend that future research should develop domain- specific items.

Share and Cite:

Lane, A. , Beedie, C. , Stanley, D. & Devonport, T. (2011). Validity of the Emotion Regulation of Self Scale among Runners. Psychology, 2, 633-637. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.26097.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Augustine, A. A., & Hemenover, S. H. (2008). On the relative effectiveness of affect regulation strategies: A meta-analysis. Cognition & Emotion, 23, 1181-1220. doi:10.1080/02699930802396556
[2] Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., DeWall, C. N., & Zhang, L. (2007). How emotion shapes behavior: Feedback, anticipation, and reflection, rather than direct causation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 167-203. doi:10.1177/1088868307301033
[3] Beedie, C. J., Terry, P. C., & Lane, A. M. (2000). The Profile of Mood States and athletic performance: two meta-analyses. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12, 49-68. doi:10.1080/10413200008404213
[4] Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (1995). EQS/Windows user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: BMDP. Statistical Software.
[5] Bishop, D. T., Karageorghis, C. I., & Loizou, G. (2007). A grounded theory of young tennis players’ use of music to manipulate emotional state. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29, 584-607.
[6] Buman, M. P., Omli, J. W., Giacobbi, P. R., & Brewer, B. W. (2008). Experiences and coping responses of hitting the wall for recreational marathon runners. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 20, 282-300. doi:10.1080/10413200802078267
[7] Carver, C. S. (2004). Self-regulation of action and affect: New York: Guilford Press.
[8] Cervone, D., Mor, N., Orom, H., Shadel, W. G., & Scott, W. D. (2004). Self-efficacy beliefs on the architecture of personality: On knowledge, appraisal, and self-regulation. New York: Guilford Press.
[9] Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302. doi:10.1037/h0040957
[10] Davies, K. A., Lane, A. M., & Devonport, T. J. (2010). Validity and reliability of a Brief Emotional Intelligence Scale (BEIS-10). Journal of Individual Differences, 31, 198-208. doi:10.1027/1614-0001/a000028
[11] Dhingra, K. J., Totterdell, P., Tantam, D., & Taylor, P. B. (2010). Emotion regulation in non-suicidal self injury. In J. Unwin (Ed.), Division of Clinical Psychology Conference (Vol. Leicester, pp. 56-57). The Lowry Hotel, Manchester: The British Psychological Society.
[12] Duda, J. L. (1998). Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, United States: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.
[13] Ekman, P., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[14] Gould, D., & Maynard, I. (2009). Psychological preparation for the Olympic Games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 1393-1408. doi:10.1080/02640410903081845
[15] Gross, J. J. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford.
[16] Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348- 362. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348
[17] Hanin, Y., & Syrja, P. (1996). Predicted, actual, and recalled affect in Olympic-level soccer players: idiographic assessments on individualized scales. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 325-335.
[18] Hanin, Y. L. (2003). Performance related emotional states in sport: A qualitative analysis.
[19] Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
[20] Jokela, M., & Hanin, Y. L. (1999). Does the individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 873-887. doi:10.1080/026404199365434
[21] Jones, J. G., Swain, A., & Cale, A. (1990). Antecedents of multidimensional competitive state anxiety and self-confidence in elite intercollegiate middle-distance runners. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 107-118.
[22] Lane, A. M. (2001). Relationships between perceptions of performance expectations and mood among distance runners: the moderating effect of depressed mood. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 4, 116-128. doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80013-X
[23] Lane, A. M. (2007). Developing and validating Psychometric tests for use in high performance settings. In L. S. Boyar (Ed.), Psychological Tests and Testing Research (pp. 203-213). New York: Nova Publishers.
[24] Larsen, R. (2009). The Contributions of positive and negative affect to emotional well-being. Psychological Topics, 18, 247-266.
[25] Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229-252.
[26] Martin, L. L. (2001). Mood as input: A configural view of mood effects. Theories of mood and cognition: a users handbook, 135.
[27] Nesse, R. M. (1990). Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Human Nature, 1, 261-289. doi:10.1007/BF02733986
[28] Niven, K., & Holman, D. (2009). Individual variability in interpersonal emotion regulation. Paper Presented at the British Psychological Society: Social Psychology Conference.
[29] Niven, K., Totterdell, P., & Holman, D. (2009). A classification of controlled interpersonal affect regulation strategies. Emotion, 9, 498-509. doi:10.1037/a0015962
[30] Niven, K., Totterdell, P. A., Stride, C., & Holman, D. (2011). Emotion Regulation of Others and Self (EROS): The development and validation of a new individual difference measure. Current Psychology, 30, 53-73. doi:10.1007/s12144-011-9099-9
[31] Parkinson, B., & Totterdell, P. (1999). Classifying affect-regulation strategies. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 277-303. doi:10.1080/026999399379285
[32] Pensgaard, A. M., & Duda, J. L. (2003). Sydney 2000: The interplay between emotions, coping, and the performance of Olympic-level athletes. Sport Psychologist, 17, 253-267.
[33] Robazza, C., Pellizzari, M., Bertollo, M., & Hanin, Y. L. (2008). Functional impact of emotions on athletic performance: Comparing the IZOF model and the directional perception approach. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 1033-1047. doi:10.1080/02640410802027352
[34] Schutz, R. W., & Gessaroli, M. E. (1993). Use, misuse, and disuse of psychometrics in sport psychology research. Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology, 901-917.
[35] Stevinson, C. D., & Biddle, S. J. H. (1998). Cognitive orientations in marathon running and hitting the wall. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 229-234. doi:10.1136/bjsm.32.3.229
[36] Tamir, M. (2009). What Do People Want to Feel and Why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 101. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01617.x
[37] Tamir, M., Chiu, C. Y., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Business or pleasure? Utilitarian versus hedonic considerations in emotion regulation. Emotion, 7, 546-554. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.7.3.546
[38] Tamir, M., Mitchell, C., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Hedonic and instrumental motives in anger regulation. Psychological Science, 19, 324. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02088.x
[39] Tenenbaum, G., Edmonds, W. A., & Eccles, D. W. (2008). Emotions, coping strategies, and performance: A conceptual framework for defining affect-related performance zones. Military Psychology, 20, S11-S37. doi:10.1080/08995600701804772
[40] Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 861-872. doi:10.1080/026404199365425
[41] Thayer, R. E., Newman, J. R., & McClain, T. M. (1994). Self-regula- tion of mood: Strategies for changing a bad mood, raising energy, and reducing tension. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 910-910. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.5.910
[42] Totterdell, P., & Leach, D. (2001). Negative mood regulation expectancies and sports performance: an investigation involving professional cricketers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2, 249-265. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(01)00016-4
[43] Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Shull, A., & Finch, D. M. (2009). Examining the consequences in the tendency to suppress and reappraise emotions on task-related job performance. Human Performance, 22, 23-43. doi:10.1080/08959280802540957
[44] Wood, W., Quinn, J. M., & Kashy, D. A. (2002). Habits in everyday life: Thought, emotion, and action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1281-1297. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1281

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.