Application Photocatalysis for Treatment of Industrial Waste Water—A Short Review


Occurrence of persistent organic compounds in industrial effluents and their efficient removal technique has emerged as a crucial problem to waste water treatment plants. This review aims to focus on the plight associated with the effluents from textile industry, agricultural and pharmaceutical effluents. The occurrence of dyes, pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems may cause chronic diseases, affect the human endocrine system and have appeared as crucial factor to consider for drinking and non-potable end uses of water. Extensive researches have been attempted to screen effective and safe method of contaminants removal by modifying conventional treatments as well as advanced processes by renowned authors. This paper aims to review different possible routes of effluent treatment emphasizing on complete mineralization of the targeted contaminants. With this purpose, a comprehensive review has been presented to deliver essential information about dealing with photocatalytic mineralization of pollutants.

Share and Cite:

Das, R. (2014) Application Photocatalysis for Treatment of Industrial Waste Water—A Short Review. Open Access Library Journal, 1, 1-17. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1100713.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO (2004)
[2] Malato, S., Fernandez-Ibanez, P., Maldonado, M.I., Blanco, J. and Gernjak, W. (2009) Decontamination and Disinfection of Water by Solar Photocatalysis: Recent Overview and Trends. Catalysis Today, 147, 1-59.
[3] Matsunaga, T., Tomoda, R., Nakajima, T. and Wake, H. (1985) Photoelectrochemical Sterilization of Microbial Cells by Semiconductor Powders. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 29, 211-214.
[4] Ahmed, S., Rasul, M.G., Brown, R. and Hashib, M.A. (2011) Influence of Parameters on the Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticides and Phenolic Contaminants in Wastewater: A Short Review. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 311-330.
[5] Ibhadon, A.O. and Fitzpatrick, P. (2013) Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Recent Advances and Applications. Catalysts, 3, 1-29.
[6] Robertson, P.K.J., Robertson, J.M.C. and Bahnemann, D.W. (2012) Removal of Microorganisms and Their Chemical Metabolites from Water Using Semiconductor Photocatalysis. Journal of Hazardous Material, 211, 161-171.
[7] Devipriya, S. and Yesodharan, S. (2005) Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticide Contaminants in Water. Solar Energy Material and Solar Cell, 86, 309-348.
[8] Tchobanoglous, G. and Burton, F.L. (1995) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd, New Delhi.
[9] Dave, R.S. and Patel, A.R. (2010) Photochemical and Photocatalytic of Cypermethrin under UV Radiation. Der pharma Chemical, 2, 152-158.
[10] Manivasakam, N. (2003) Industrial Effluents Origin, Characteristics, Effects, Analysis and Treatment. Sakthi Publications, Coimbatore.
[11] Villegas-Navarro, A., Ramirez, M.Y., Salvador-S, M.S. and Gallardo, J.M. (2001) Determination of Wastewater LC50 of the Different Process Stages of the Textile Industry. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 48, 56-61.
[12] Wynne, G., Maharaj, D. and Buckley, C. (2001) Cleaner Production in the Textile Industry—Lessons from the Danish Experience. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Natal, Durban, 3-17.
[13] Mirkhani, V., Tangestaninejad, S., Moghadam, M., Hibibi, M.H. and Vartoony, R. (2009) Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes Catalyzed by Ag Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, 6, 578-587.
[14] Neppolian, B., Choi, H.C., Sakthivel, S., Arabindoo, B. and Murugesun, V. (2002) Solar/UV-Induced Photocatalytic Degradation of Three Commercial Textile Dyes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 89, 303-317.
[15] Srivastava, V.S. (2012) Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye and Chromium Metal from Wastewater Using Nanocrystalline TiO2 Semiconductor. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4, 1244-1254.
[16] Vautier, M., Guillard, C. and Herrmann, J.M. (2001) Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes in Water: Case Study of Indigo and of Indigo Carmine. Journal of Catalysis, 201, 46-59.
[17] Julkapli, N., Bagheri, S. and Hamid, S.B.A. (2014) Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, Article ID: 692307.
[18] Talebian, N. and Nilforoushan, M.R. (2010) Comparative Study of the Structural Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of Semiconductor Metal Oxides toward Degradation of Methylene Blue. Thin Solid Films, 518, 2210-2215.
[19] Mehta, P., Mehta, R., Surana, M. and Kabra, B.V. (2011) Influence of Operational Parameters on Degradation of Commercial Textile Azo Dye Acid Blue 113 (Cyanine 5R) by Advanced Oxidation Technology. Journal of Current Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science, 1, 28-36.
[20] Tayade, R.J., Surolia, P.K., Kulkarni, R.G. and Jasra, R.V. (2007) Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes and Organic Contaminants in Water Using Nanocrystalline Anatase and Rutile TiO2. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 8, 455-462.
[21] Hosseinnia, A., Keyanpour, R.M. and Pazouki, M. (2010) Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes with Different Chromophores by Synthesized Nanosize TiO2 Particles. World Applied Science Journal, 8, 1327-1332.
[22] Mozia, S., Tomaszewska, M. and Moraoski, A.W. (2005) Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo-Dye Acid Red 18. Desalination, 185, 449-456.
[23] Yang, J., Chen, C., Ji, H., Ma, W. and Zhao, J. (2005) Mechanism of TiO2-Assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes under Visible Irradiation: Photoelectrocatalytic Study by TiO2-Film Electrodes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109, 21900-21907.
[24] Sobczynski, A., Duczmal, L. and Zmudzinski, W. (2004) Phenol Destruction by Photocatalysis on TiO2: An Attempt to Solve the Reaction Mechanism. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemistry, 213, 225-230.
[25] Al-Qaradawi, S. and Salman, S.R. (2002) Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange as a Model Compound. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, 148, 161-168.
[26] Joshi, K.M. and Shrivastava, V.S. (2011) Degradation of Alizarine Red-S (a Textiles Dye) by Photocatalysis Using Zno and TiO2 as Photocatalyst. International Journal of Environmental Science, 2, 8-21.
[27] Lin, W.C., Yang, W.D. and Jheng, S.Y. (2012) Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes in Water Using Porous Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 43, 269-274.
[28] Venkata Subba Rao, K., Rachel, A., Subrahmanyam, M. and Boul, P. (2003) Immobilization of TiO2 on Pumice Stone for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes and Dye Industry Pollutants. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 46, 77-85.
[29] Wang, J.A., Limas-Ballesteros, R., Lopez, T., Moreno, R., Gómez, R., Novaro, O. and Bokhimi, X. (2001) Quantitative Determination of Titanium Lattice Defects and Solid State Reaction Mechanism in Iron Doped TiO2 Photocatalysis. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 105, 9692-9698.
[30] Yu, J.C., Yu, J.G. and Zhao, J.C. (2002) Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Mesoporous and Ordinary TiO2 Thin Films by Sulfutic Acid Treatment. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 36, 31-43.
[31] Yu, J., Yu, J.C., Ho, W.K. and Jiang, Z. (2002) Effect of Calcinations Temperature on the Photocatalytic Activity and Photo Induced Super-Hydrophilicity of Mesoporous TiO2 Thin Films. New Journal of Chemistry, 26, 607-613.
[32] Nguyen-Phan, T.D. and Shin, E.W. (2011) Morphological Effect of TiO2 Catalysts on Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 17, 397-400.
[33] Fujishima, A., Hashimoto, K. and Watanabe, T. (1999) TiO2 Photocatalysis Fundamentals and Applications. BKC Inc., Tokyo.
[34] Torimoto, T., Ito, S., Kuwabata, S. and Yoneyama, H. (1996) Effects of Adsorbents Used as Supports for Titanium Dioxide Loading on Photocatalytic Degradation of Propyzamide. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 1275-1281.
[35] Fox, M.A., Doan, K.E. and Dulay, M.T. (1994) the Effect of the “Inert” Support on Relative Photocatalytic Activity in the Oxidative Decomposition of Alcohols on Irradiated Titanium Dioxide Composites. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 20, 711-722.
[36] Rachel, A., Subrahmanyam, M. and Boule, P. (2002) Comparison of Photocatalytic Efficiencies of TiO2 in Suspension and Immobilised Form for the Photocataytic Degradation of Nitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 37, 301-308.
[37] Fernández, A., Lassaletta, G., Jiménez, V.M., Justo, A., González-Elipe, A.R., Herrmann, J.M., Tahiri, H. and Ait-Ichou, Y. (1995) Preparation and Characterization of TiO2 Photocatalysts Supported on Various Rigid Supports (Glass, Quartz and Stainless Steel). Comparative Studies of Photocatalytic Activity in Water Purification. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 7, 49-63.
[38] Mikula, M., Brezová, V., Ceppan, M., Pach, M. and Karpinskey, L. (1995) Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity of Sol-Gel TiO2 and P25 TiO2 Particles Supported on Commercial Fiberglass Fabric. Journal of Materials Science Letters, 14, 615-616.
[39] Rachel, A., Lavédrine, B., Subrahmanyam, M. and Boule, P. (2002) Use of Porous Lavas as Supports of Photocatalysts. Catalysis Communications, 3, 165-171.
[40] Kasanen, J., Salstela, J. and Suvanto, M. (2011) Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue in Water Solution by Multilayer TiO2 Coating on HDPE. Applied Surface Science, 258, 1738-1743.
[41] Karkmaz, M., Puzenat, E., Guillard, C. and Herrmann, J.M. (2004) Photocatalytic Degradation of the Alimentary Azo Dye Amaranth Mineralization of the Azo Group to Nitrogen. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 51, 183-194.
[42] Tayade, R.J., Natarajan, T.S. and Bajaj, H.C. (2009) Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48, 10262-10267.
[43] Chong, M.N., Jin, B. and Zhu, H.Y. (2009) Application of H-Titanate Nanofibers for Degradation of Congo Red in an Annular Slurry Photoreactor. Chemical Engineering Journal, 150, 49-54.
[44] Zayani, G., Bousselmi, L., Mhenni, F. and Ghrabi, A. (2009) Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Commercial Textile Azo Dyes: Performance of Pilot Plant Scale Thin Film Fixed-Bed Reactor. Desalination, 246, 344-352.
[45] Tseng, Y.H. and Kuo, C.H. (2011) Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye and Nox Using Visible-Light-Responsive Carbon Containing TiO2. Catalysis Today, 174, 114-120.
[46] Lee, D.Y., Lee, M.H. and Cho, N.I. (2012) Preparation and Photocatalytic Degradation of Erbium Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanorods. Current Applied Physics, 12, 1229-1233.
[47] Saepurahman, Abdullah, M.A. and Chong, F.K. (2010) Preparation and Characterization of Tungsten-Loaded Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst for Enhanced Dye Degradable. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176, 451-458.
[48] Chen, R., Wang, J., Wang, H., Yao, W. and Zhong, J. (2011) Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange in Aqueous Solution over Titania-Pillarred α-Zirconium Phosphate. Solid State Sciences, 13, 630-635.
[49] Choi, J., Park, H. and Hoffmann, M.R. (2010) Effects of Single Metal-Ion Doping on the Visible-Light Photoreactivity of TiO2. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114,783-792.
[50] Binbin, Y.U., Bin, Z.J., Fen, G.L., Qing, Y.X., Mei, Z.L. and Xi, C. (2008) Photocatalytic Degradation Investigation of Dicofol. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53, 27-32.
[51] Abdennouri, M., Baalala, M., Galadi, A., Makhfouk, M., El Bensitel, M., Nohair, K., Sadiq, M., Boussaoud, A. and Barka, N. (2011) Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticides by Titanium Dioxide and Titanium Pillared Purified Clays. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.
[52] Smith, C.N., Carsel, R.F. and Parrish, R.S. (1987) Estimating Sample Requirements for Field Evaluations of Pesticide Leaching. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 6, 343-357.
[53] Younes, M. and Galal-Gorchev, H. (2000) Pesticides in Drinking Water—A Case Study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38, S87-S90.
[54] Tanner, C.M., Kamel, F., Webster Ross, G., Hoppin, J.A., Goldman, S.M., Korell, M., Marras, C., Bhudhikanok, G.S., Kasten, M., Chade, A.R., Comyns, K., Richards, M.B., Meng, C., Priestley, B., Fernandez, H.H., Cambi, F., Umbach, D.M., Blair, A., Sandler, D.P. and Langston, J.W. (2011) Rotenone, Paraquat and Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119, 866-872.
[55] Doull, J. (1989) Pesticide Carcinogenicity: Introduction and Background. In: Ragsdale, N. and Menzer, R.E., Eds., Carcinogenicity and Pesticides: Principles, Issues and Relationships, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1-5.
[56] Malato, S., Blaneo, J. and Richter, C. (1999) Solar Photocatalytic Mineralization of Commercial Pesticides: Methamidophos. Chemosphere, 38, 1145-1156.
[57] Foster, L.J., Kwan, B.H. and Vancov, T. (2004) Microbial Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticide, Ethion. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 240, 49-53.
[58] Muhamad, S.G. (2010) Kinetic Studies of Catalytic Photodegradation of Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Various Natural Waters. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 3, 127-133.
[59] Abdennouri, M., Galadi, A., Barka, N., Baalala, M., Nohair, K., Elkrati, M., Sadiq, M. and Bensitel, M. (2010) Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity by Para-Chlorotoluene Photooxidation of Tin Oxide Films Deposited on Pyrex Glass Substrates. Physical Chemistry News, 54, 126-130.
[60] Barka, N., Qourzal, S., Assabbane, A., Nounah, A. and Aît-Ichou, Y. (2010) Photocatalytic Degradation of an Azo Reactive Dye, Reactive Yellow 84, in Water Using an Industrial Titanium Dioxide Coated Media. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 3, 279-283.
[61] Konstantinou, I.K. and Albanis, A.T. (2002) Photocatalytic Transformation of Pesticides in Aqueous Titanium Dioxide Suspensions Using Artificial and Solar Light: Intermediates and Degradation Pathways. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 1310, 1-17.
[62] Pelizzetti, E., Maurino, V., Minero, C., Carlin, V., Pramauro, E., Zerbinati, O. and Tosato, M.L. (1990) Photocatalytic Degradation of Atrazine and Other S-Triazine Herbicides. Environmental Science and Technology, 24, 1559-1565.
[63] Lhomme, L., Brosillon, S. and Wolbert, D. (2008) Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticides in Pure Water and a Commercial Agricultural Solution on TiO2 Coated Media. Chemosphere, 70, 381-386.
[64] Pichat, P., Vannier, S., Dussaud, J. and Rubis, J.P. (2004) Field Solar Photocatalytic Purification of Pesticides-Containing Rinse Waters from Tractor Cisterns Used for Grape Vine Treatment. Solar Energy, 77, 533-542.
[65] Dionysiou, D.D., Khodadoust, A.P., Kern, A.M., Suidan, M.T., Baudin, I. and Laine, J.M. (2000) Continuous-Mode Photocatalytic Degradation of Chlorinated Phenols and Pesticides in Water Using a Bench-Scale TiO2 Rotating Disk Reactor. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 24, 139-155.
[66] Toyoda, A., Zhang, L., Kanki, T. and Sano, N. (2000) Degradation of Phenol in Aqueous Solution by TiO2 Photocatalyst Coated Rotating-Drum Reactor. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 33, 188-191.
[67] Molinari, R., Palmisano, L., Drioli, E. and Schiavello, M. (2002) Studies on Various Reactor Configurations for Coupling Photocatalysis and Membrane Processes in Water Purification. Journal of Membrane Science, 206, 399-415.
[68] Zapata, A., Oller, I., Sirtory, C., Rodríguez, A., Sánchez Pérez, J.A., López, A., Mezcua, M. and Malato, S. (2010) Decontamination of Industrial Waste Water, Containing Pesticides by Combining Large Scale Homogeneous Solar Photocatalysis and Biological Treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 160, 447-456.
[69] Araña, J., Garriga i Cabo, C., Fernández-Rodríguez, C., Herrera Melián, J.A., Ortega Méndez, J.A., Doña Rodríguez, J.M. and Pérez Peña, J. (2008) Combining TiO2-Photocatalysis and Wetland Reactors for the Efficient Treatment of Pesticides. Chemosphere, 71, 788-794.
[70] Navarro, S., Fenoll, J., Vela, N., Ruiz, E. and Navarro, G. (2009) Photocatalytic Degradation of Eight Pesticides in Leaching Water by Use of ZnO under Natural Sunlight. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172, 1303-1310.
[71] Liu, G.H., Zhu, Y.F., Zhang, X.R. and Xu, B.Q. (2002) Chemiluminescence Determination of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds by Conversion on Nanometer TiO2. Analytical Chemistry, 74, 6279-6284.
[72] Echavia, G.R.M., Matzusawa, F. and Negishi, N. (2009) Photocatalytic Degradation of Organophosphate and Phosphonoglycine Pesticides Using TiO2 Immobilized on Silica Gel. Chemosphere, 76, 595-600.
[73] Choi, W., Hong, S.J., Chang, Y.S. and Cho, Y. (2000) Photocatalytic Degradation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin on TiO2 Film under UV and Solar Light Irradiation. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 4810-4815.
[74] Zan, L., Fa, W.J. and Wang, S.L. (2006) Novel Photodegradable Low Density Polyethylene-TiO2 Nanocomposite Film. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 1681-1685.
[75] Yu, B., Zeng, J., Gong, L., Zhang, M., Zhang, L. and Chen, X. (2007) Investigation of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Organochlorine Pesticides on A Nano-TiO2 Coated Film. Talanta, 72, 1667-1674.
[76] Herrmann, J.M., Guillard, C., Arguello, M., Agüera, A., Tejedor, A., Piedra, L. and Fernández-Alba, A. (1999) Photocatalytic Degradation of Pesticide Pirimiphos-Methyl: Determination of the Reaction Pathway and Identification of Intermediate Products by Various Analytical Methods. Catalysis Today, 54, 353-367.
[77] Adesina, S. (2004) Industrial Exploitation of Photocatalysis: Progress, Perspectives and Prospects. Catalysis Surveys from Asia, 8, 265-273.
[78] Mukherjee, P.S. and Ray, A.K. (1999) Major Challenges in the Design of a Large Scale Photocatalytic Reactor for Water Treatment. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 22, 253-260.<253::AID-CEAT253>3.0.CO;2-X
[79] Moctezuma, E., Leyva, E., Palestino, G. and Lasa, H.D. (2007) Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Parathion: Reaction Pathways and Intermediate Reaction Products. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 186, 71-84.
[80] Legrini, O., Oliveros, E. and Braun, A.M. (1993) Photochemical Process for Water Treatment. Chemical Reviews, 93, 671-698.
[81] Ruiz, M.J., López Jaramillo, L., Redondo, M.J. and Font, G. (1997) Toxicity Assessment of Pesticides Using the Microtox Test Application to Environmental Samples. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 59, 619-625.
[82] Tapp, J.F., Hult, S.M. and Wharfe, J.R. (1996) Toxic Impact of Wastes on the Aquatic Environment. Royal Society of Chemistry, London.
[83] Bahnemann, D., Cunningham, J., Fox, M.A., Pelizzetti, E., Pichat, P. and Serpone, N.I.N. (1994) Photocatalytic treatment of waters. In: Helz, G.R., Zepp, R.G. and Crosby, D.G., Eds., Aquatic and Surface Photochemistry, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 261.
[84] Ollis, D.F., Pelizzetti, E. and Serpone, N. (1991) Photocatalyzed Destruction of Water Contaminants. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1523-1529.
[85] Mills, A. and Le Hunte, S. (1997) An Overview of Semiconductor Photocatalysis. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 108, 1-35.
[86] Hansen, L.G. (1998) Stepping Backward to Improve Assessment of PCB Congener Toxicities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106, 171-189.
[87] Jegou, B. (1998) S14/L1—An Introduction to Endocrine Disruption Science. Toxicology Letters, 95, 16-17.
[88] Roepke, T.A., Snyder, M.J. and Cherr, G.N. (2005) Estradiol and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Adversely Affect Development of Sea Urchin Embryos at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations. Aquatic Toxicology, 71, 155-173.
[89] Rhind, S.M. (2005) Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Threat to Farm Animal Health, Welfare and Productivity? Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 40, 282-290.
[90] Spano, M., Toft, G., Hagmar, L., Eleuteri, P., Rescia, M., Rignell-Hydbom, A., Tyrkiel, E., Zvyezday, V., Bonde, J.P. and INUENDO (2005) Exposure to PCB and P, P’-DDE in European and Inuit Populations: Impact on Human Sperm Chromatin Integrity. Human Reproduction, 20, 3488-3499.
[91] Kümmerer, K. (2001) Drugs in the Environment: Emission of Drugs, Diagnostic Aids and Disinfectants into Wastewater by Hospitals in Relation to Other Sources—A Review. Chemosphere, 45, 957-969.
[92] Wise, R., Hart, T., Cars, O., Streulens, M., Helmuth, R., Huovinen, P. and Sprenger, M. (1998) Antimicrobial Resistance: Is a Major Threat to Public Health. British Medical Journal, 317, 609-610.
[93] Dokianakis, S.N., Kornaros, M.E. and Lyberatos, G. (2004) On the Effect of Pharmaceuticals on Bacterial Nitrite Oxidation. Water Science and Technology, 50, 341-346.
[94] Fountoulakis, M., Drillia, P., Stamatelatou, K. and Lyberatos, G. (2004) Toxic Effect of Pharmaceuticals on Methanogenesis. Water Science and Technology, 50, 335-340.
[95] Eljarrat, E. and Barcelo, D. (2003) Priority Lists for Persistent Organic Pollutants and Emerging Contaminants Based on Their Relative Toxic Potency in Environmental Samples. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 22, 655-665.
[96] Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B. and Buxton, H.T. (2002) Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in US Streams, 1999-2000: A National Reconnaissance. Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 1202-1211.
[97] Huber, M.M., Canonica, S., Park, G.Y. and Von Gunten, U. (2003) Oxidation of Pharmaceuticals during Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation Processes. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 1016-1024.
[98] Hirsch, R., Ternes, T., Haberer, K. and Kratz, K.L. (1999) Occurrence of Antibiotics in the Aquatic Environment. Science of the Total Environment, 225, 109-118.
[99] Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D. and Myers, J.P. (1996) Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story. Dutton, New York.
[100] Yoon, Y., Westerhoff, P., Snyder, S.A. and Wert, E.C. (2006) Nanofiltration and Ultrafiltration of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds, Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products. Journal of Membrane Science, 270, 88-100.
[101] Wintgens, T., Gallenkemper, M. and Melin, T. (2004) Removal of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds with Membrane Processes in Wastewater Treatment and Reuse. Water Science and Technology, 50, 1-8.
[102] Petrovic, M., Gonzalez, S. and Barcelo, D. (2003) Analysis and Removal of Emerging Contaminants in Wastewater and Drinking Water. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 22, 685-696.
[103] Zhou, H., Nusier, O.K. and Smith, D.W. (2002) Advanced Technologies in Water and Wastewater Treatment. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 1, 247-264.
[104] Radjenovic, J., Petrovic, M. and Barceló, D. (2007) Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater and Removal Using a Membrane Bioreactor. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387, 1365-1377.
[105] Radjenovic, J., Petrovic, M. and Barcelo, D. (2009) Fate and Distribution of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater and Sewage Sludge of the Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) and Advanced Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Treatment. Water Research, 43, 831-841.
[106] Kimura, K., Hara, H. and Watanabe, Y. (2005) Removal of Pharmaceutical Compounds by Submerged Membrane Bioreactors (Mbrs). Desalination, 178, 135-140.
[107] Weber, S., Gallenkemper, M., Melin, T., Dott, W. and Hollender, J. (2004) Efficiency of Nanofiltration for the Elimination of Steroids from Water. Water Science and Technology, 50, 9-14.
[108] Rizzo, L., Meric, S., Guida, M., Kassinos, D. and Belgiorno, V. (2009) Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation Kinetics and Detoxification of an Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Contaminated with Pharmaceuticals. Water Research, 43, 4070-4078.
[109] Benotti, M.J., Stanford, B.D., Wert, E.C. and Snyder, S.A. (2009) Evaluation of a Photocatalytic Reactor Membrane Pilot System for the Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds from Water. Water Research, 43, 1513-1522.
[110] Laera, G., Chong, M.N., Jin, B. and Lopez, A. (2011) An Integrated MBR-TiO2 Photocatalysis Process for the Removal of Carbamazepine from Simulated Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent. Bioresource Technology, 102, 7012-7015.
[111] Yahiat, S., Fourcade, F., Brosillon, S. and Amrane, A. (2011) Removal of Antibiotics by an Integrated Process Coupling Photocatalysis and Biological Treatment—Case of Tetracycline and Tylosin. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 65, 997-1003.
[112] Kabra, K., Chaudhary, R. and Sawhney, R.L. (2004) Treatment of Hazardous Organic and Inorganic Compounds through Aqueous-Phase Photocatalysis: A Review. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 7683-7696.
[113] Giraldo, A.L., Peñuela, G.A., Torres-Palma, R.A., Pino, N.J., Palominos, R.A. and Mansilla, H.D. (2010) Degradation of the Antibiotic Oxolinic Acid by Photocatalysis, with TiO2 in Suspension. Water Research, 44, 5158-5167.
[114] Maroga Mboula, V., Héquet, V., Gru, Y., Colin, R. and Andrès, Y. (2012) Assessment of the Efficiency of Photocatalysis on Tetracycline Biodegradation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 209-210, 355-364.
[115] Kümmerer, K., Al-Ahmad, A. and Mersch-Sundermann, V. (2000) Biodegradability of Some Antibiotics, Elimination of the Genotoxicity and Affection of Wastewater Bacteria in a Simple Test. Chemosphere, 40, 701-710.
[116] Esiobu, N., Armenta, L. and Ike, J. (2002) Antibiotic Resistance in Soil and Water Environments. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12, 133-144.
[117] Challis, J.K., Hanson, M.L., Friesenc, K.J. and Wong, C.S. (2014) A Critical Assessment of the Photodegradation of Pharmaceuticals in Aquatic Environments: Defining Our Current Understanding and Identifying Knowledge Gaps. Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts, 16, 672-696.
[118] Palominos, R.A., Mondaca, M.A., Giraldo, A., Peñnuela, G., Pérez-Moya, M. and Mansilla, H.D. (2009) Photocatalytic Oxidation of the Antibiotic Tetracycline on TiO2 and ZnO Suspensions. Catalysis Today, 144, 100-105.
[119] Reyes, C., Fernández, J., Freer, J., Mondaca, M.A., Zaror, C., Malato, S. and Mansilla, H.D. (2006) Degradation and Inactivation of Tetracycline by TiO2 Photocatalysis. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, 184, 141-146.
[120] Zhang, J., Fu, D. and Wu, J. (2012) Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in Aqueous Solution Containing Algae. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 24, 743-749.
[121] Ratola, N., Cincinelli, A., Alves, A. and Katsoyiannis, A. (2012) Occurrence of Organic Microcontaminants in the Wastewater Treatment Process. A Mini Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 239-240, 1-18.
[122] Rizzo, L., Meric, S., Kassinos, D., Guida, M., Russo, F. and Belgiorno, V. (2009) Degradation of Diclofenac by TiO2 Photocatalysis: UV Absorbance Kinetics and Process Evaluation through a Set of Toxicity Bioassays. Water Research, 43, 979-988.
[123] Chong, M.N. and Jin, B. (2012) Photocatalytic Treatment of High Concentration Carbamazepine in Synthetic Hospital Wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 199-200, 135-142.
[124] Nasuhoglu, D., Berk, D. and Yargeau, V. (2012) Photocatalytic Removal of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and Levonorgestrel (LNG) from Contraceptive Pill Manufacturing Plant Wastewater under UVC Radiation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 185-186, 52-60.
[125] Coleman, H.M., Eggins, B.R., Byrne, J.A., Palmer, F.L. and King, E. (2000) Photocatalytic Degradation of 17-β-Oestradiol on Immobilised TiO2. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 24, L1-L5.
[126] Coleman, H.M., Routledge, E.J., Sumpter, J.P., Eggins, B.R. and Byrne, J.A. (2004) Rapid Loss of Estrogenicity of Steroid Estrogens by UVA Photolysis and Photocatalysis over an Immobilised Titanium Dioxide Catalyst. Water Research, 38, 3233-3240.
[127] Coleman, H.M., Abdullah, M.I., Eggins, B.R. and Palmer, F.L. (2005) Photocatalytic Degradation of 17β-Oestradiol, Oestriol and 17α-Ethynyloestradiol in Water Monitored Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 55, 23-30.
[128] Karpova, T., Preis, S. and Kallas, J. (2007) Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Steroid Estrogens in Water Treatment: Urea as Co-Pollutant. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146, 465-471.
[129] Karpova, T., Preis, S., Kallas, J. and Torres, A.L.B. (2007) Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Steroid Estrogens in Presence of Saccharose and Ethanol as Copollutants. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 5, 219-224.
[130] Mai, J., Sun, W., Xiong, L., Liu, Y. and Ni, J. (2008) Titanium Dioxide Mediated Photocatalytic Degradation of 17β-Estradiol in Aqueous Solution. Chemosphere, 73, 600-606.
[131] Nakashima, T., Ohko, Y., Tryk, D.A. and Fujishima, A. (2002) Decomposition of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Water by Use of TiO2 Photocatalysts Immobilized on Polytetrafluoroethylene Mesh Sheets. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 151, 207-212.
[132] Nakashima, T., Ohko, Y., Kubota, Y. and Fujishima, A. (2003) Photocatalytic Decomposition of Estrogens in Aquatic Environment by Reciprocating Immersion of TiO2-Modified Polytetrafluoroethylene Mesh Sheets. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 160, 115-120.
[133] Ohko, Y., Iuchi, K.I., Niwa, C., Tatsuma, T., Nakashima, T., Iguchi, T., Kubota, Y. and Fujishima, A. (2002) 17β-Estradiol Degradation by TiO2 Photocatalysis as a Means of Reducing Estrogenic Activity. Environmental Science & Technology, 36, 4175-4181.
[134] Zhang, Y., Zhou, J.L. and Ning, B. (2007) Photodegradation of Estrone and 17β-Estradiol in Water. Water Research, 41, 19-26.
[135] Zhang, Y. and Zhou, J.L. (2008) Occurrence and Removal of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater. Chemosphere, 73, 848-853.
[136] Puma, G.L., Puddu, V., Tsang, H.K., Gora, A. and Toepfer, B. (2010) Photocatalytic Oxidation of Multicomponent Mixtures of Estrogens (Estrone (E1), 17β-Estradiol (E2), 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) and Estriol (E3) under UVA and UVC Radiation: Photon Absorption, Quantum Yields and Rate Constants Independent of Photon Absorption. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 99, 388-397.
[137] Silva, C.P., Otero, M. and Esteves, V. (2012) Processes for the Elimination of Estrogenic Steroid Hormones from Water: A Review. Environmental Pollution, 165, 38-58.
[138] Chiang, K., Lim, T.M., Tsen, L. and Lee, C.C. (2004) Photocatalytic Degradation and Mineralization of Bisphenol A by TiO2 and Platinized TiO2. Applied Catalysis A: General, 261, 225-237.
[139] Ohko, Y., Ando, I., Niwa, C., Tatsuma, T., Yamamura, T., Nakashima, T., Kubota, Y. and Fujishima, A. (2001) Degradation of Bisphenol A in Water by TiO2 Photocatalyst. Environmental Science & Technology, 35, 2365-2368.
[140] Wang, C., Zhang, H., Li, F. and Zhu, L. (2010) Degradation and Mineralization of Bisphenol A by Mesoporous Bi2WO6 under Simulated Solar Light Irradiation. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 6843-6848.
[141] Wang, C.Y., Zhu, L.Y., Wei, M.C., Chen, P. and Shan, G.Q. (2012) Photolytic Reaction Mechanism and Impacts of Coexisting Substances on Photodegradation of Bisphenol A by Bi2WO6 in Water. Water Research, 46, 845-853.
[142] Rahimpour, A., Madaeni, S.S., Taheri, A.H. and Mansourpanah, Y. (2008) Coupling TiO2 Nanoparticles with UV Irradiation for Modification of Polyethersulfone Ultrafiltration Membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 313, 158-169.
[143] Li, J.F., Xu, Z.L., Yang, H., Yu, L.Y. and Liu, M. (2009) Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Surface Morphology and Performance of Microporous PES Membrane. Applied Surface Science, 255, 4725-4732.
[144] Rahimpour, A., Madaeni, S.S., Jahanshahi, M., Mansourpanah, Y. and Mortazavian, N. (2009) Development of High Performance Nano-Porous Polyethersulfone Ultrafiltration Membranes with Hydrophilic Surface and Superior Antifouling Properties. Applied Surface Science, 255, 9166-9173.
[145] Elmolla, E.S. and Chaudhuri, M. (2011) The Feasibility of Using Combined TiO2 Photocatalysis-SBR Process for Antibiotic Wastewater Treatment. Desalination, 272, 218-224.
[146] Chong, M.N., Jin, B., Laera, G. and Saint, C.P. (2011) Evaluating the Photodegradation of Carbamazepine in a Sequential Batch Photoreactor System: Impacts of Effluent Organic Matter and Inorganic Ions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 174, 595-602.
[147] Mozia, S. (2010) Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors (PMRs) in Water and Wastewater Treatment. A Review. Separation and Purification Technology, 73, 71-79.
[148] Das, R., Sarkar, S., Chakraborty, S., Choi, H. and Bhattacharjee, C. (2014) Remediation of Antiseptic Components in Wastewater by Photocatalysis Using TiO2 Nanoparticles. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53, 3012-3020.
[149] Hwang, K.J., Lee, J.W., Shim, W.G., Jang, H.D., Lee, S.I. and Yoo, S.J. (2012) Adsorption and Photocatalysis of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Particles Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Methylene Blue Degradation. Advanced Powder Technology, 23, 414-418.
[150] Byrappa, K., Subramani, A.K., Ananda, S., Lokanatha, K.M. and Dinesh, R. (2006) Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B Dye Using Hydrothermally Synthesized ZnO. Bulletin of Material Science, 29, 433-438.
[151] Sanlaville, Y., Guittonneau, S., Mansour, M., Feicht, E.A., Meallier, P. and Kettrup, A. (1996) Photosensitized Degradation of Terbuthylazine in Water. Chemosphere, 33, 353-362.
[152] Peris, C.E., Terol, J., Mauri, A.R., de la Guardia, M. and Pramauro, E. (1993) Continuous Flow Photocatalytic Degradation of Carbaryl in Aqueous Medium. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 28, 431-445.
[153] Pramauro, E., Prevot, A.B., Vincenti, M. and Brizzolesi, G. (1997) Photocatalytic Degradation of Carbaryl in Aqueous Solution Containing TiO2 Suspension. Environmental Science and Technology, 31, 3126-3131.
[154] Rabindranathan, S., Devipriya, S. and Yesodharan, S. (2003) Photocatalytic Degradation of Phosphamidon on Semiconductor Oxides. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 102, 217-229.
[155] Zaleska, A., Hupka, J., Wiergowski, M. and Bizuik, M. (2000) Photocatalytic Degradation of Lindane, P,P’-DDT and Methoxychlor in an Aqueous Environment. Journal Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 135, 213-220.
[156] Zhu, X.D., Wang, Y.J., Sun, R.J. and Zhou, D.M. (2013) Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline in Aqueous Solution by Nanosized TiO2. Chemosphere, 92, 925-932.
[157] Tassalit, D. (2011) Photocatalytic Deterioration of Tylosin in an Aqueous Suspension Using UV/TiO2. Science of Advanced Materials, 3, 939-943.
[158] Parra, S., Stanca, S.E., Guasaquillo, I. and Thampi, K.R. (2004) Photocatalytic Degradation of Atrazine Using Suspended and Supported TiO2. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 51, 107-116.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.