Epidemiological, Pathophysiological and Clinical Peculiarities of Graves’ Disease in Children with Down and Turner Syndrome: A Literature Review


Aim: to describe the salient relationships between Graves’ disease (GD) and both Turner syndrome (TS) and Down syndrome (DS). Design: to conduct a secondary analysis of current literature on this topic. Results: 1) the prevalences of GD in TS and in DS young patients are 1.7% and 6.5‰, respectively, i.e. higher than that in pediatric general population (around 1‰); 2) in both these chromosomopathies GD presentation is often preceded by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) antecedents; 3) in both TS and DS, GD presents with a clinical picture very similar to that observed in GD patients without these chromosomopathies; 4) in TS, clinical course of GD under pharmacological therapy is very similar to that observed in non-TS girls; 5) in DS, clinical course of GD under pharmacological therapy is less severe than that in non-DS patients. Conclusions: in the children with either TS or DS, GD is characterized by two common epidemiological peculiarities, i.e. increased prevalence rate and elevated frequency of HT antecedents.

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Wasniewska, M. , Aversa, T. , De Luca, F. , Valenzise, M. , Messina, M. and Lombardo, F. (2014) Epidemiological, Pathophysiological and Clinical Peculiarities of Graves’ Disease in Children with Down and Turner Syndrome: A Literature Review. Health, 6, 1447-1452. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.612178.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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