Receptor binding specificity and origin of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus
Wei Hu
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.33030   PDF    HTML     7,541 Downloads   12,802 Views   Citations


Recently, a genetic variant of 2009 H1N1 has become the predominant virus circulating in the southern hemisphere, particularly Australia and New Zealand, and in Singapore during the winter of 2010. It was associated with several vaccine breakthroughs and fatal cases. We analyzed three reported mutations D94N, N125D, and V250A in the HA protein of this genetic variant. It appeared that the reason for D94N and V250A to occur in pairs was to maintain the HA binding to human type receptor, so the virus could replicate in humans efficiently. Guided by this interpretation, we discovered a new mutation V30A that could compensate for N125D as V250A did for D94N. We demonstrated that the presence of amino acids 30A and 125N in HA enhanced the binding to human type receptor, while 30V and 125D favored the receptors of avian type and of A/South Carolina/1/18 (H1N1). Furthermore, a combination of 94D, 125D, and 250V made the primary binding preference similar to that of A/South Carolina/1/18 (H1N1) and a combination of 94N, 125D, and 250A resulted in the primary binding affinity for avian type receptor, which clearly differed from that of A/California/07/2009 (H1N1), a strain used in the vaccine for 2009 H1N1. We also re-examined the origin of 2009 H1N1 to refine our knowledge of this important issue. Although the NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 of 2009 H1N1 were closest to North American swine H3N2 in sequence identity, their interaction patterns were closest to swine H1N1 in North America.

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Hu, W. (2011) Receptor binding specificity and origin of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. Natural Science, 3, 234-248. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.33030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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