The Psychometric Properties of the Self-Talk Scale among Iranian University Students


The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the Self-Talk Scale (STS) among Iranian university students. Six hundred eight university students completed the STS and one of six self- and cognitive-related measures. The results of exploratory factor analysis showed the same four factors (i.e., self-reinforcement, self-management, self-criticism, and social-assessment) in the STS-Iranian version. Item analysis and internal consistency coefficients demonstrated that the items and factors were satisfactory. Confirmatory factor analysis also supported a four-factor model. Self-talk frequency scores were associated with personality measures in theoretically meaningful ways. The results indicate that the STS is acceptable for measuring self-talk frequency among Iranian adults.

Share and Cite:

Khodayarifard, M. , Brinthaupt, T. , Zardkhaneh, S. & Azar, G. (2014). The Psychometric Properties of the Self-Talk Scale among Iranian University Students. Psychology, 5, 119-126. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.52019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Anderson, A. (1997). Learning strategies in physical education: Selftalk, imagery, and goal-setting. Journal of Physical Education Recreation & Dance, 68, 30-35.
[2] Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
[3] Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.
[4] Beshārat, M. A., Bazzāziān, S., & Poor Bohlul, S. (in Press). The psychometric properties of self-regulation in Iranian Sample. Journal of Cognitive Science.
[5] Beshart, M. A. (2010). Psychometric properties of self-regulation scaleshort form in an Iranian sample. Clinical Psychology and Counseling Researches, 1, 53-70.
[6] Brinthaupt, T. M., & Kang, M. (in Press). Many-faceted Rasch calibration: An example using the self-talk scale. Assessment.
[7] Brinthaupt, T. M., Hein, M. B., & Kramer, T. E. (2009). The self talk scale: Development, factor analysis and validation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 82-92.
[8] Calvete, E., Estevez, A., Landin, C., Martinez, Y., Cardenoso, O., Villardon, L., & Villa, A. (2005). Self-talk and affective problems in college students: Valence of thinking and cognitive content specificity. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 8, 56-67.
[9] Conroy, D. E., & Metzler, J. N. (2004). Patterns of self-talk associated with different forms of competitive anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 69-89.
[10] Duncan, R. M., & Cheyne, J. A. (1999). Incidence and functions of self-report private speech in young adults: A self-verbalization questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 31, 133-136.
[11] Fields, C. (2002). Why do we talk to ourselves? Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 14, 255-272.
[12] Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., Hajcak, G., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2002). The obsessive-compulsive inventory: Development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485-496.
[13] Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., & Hargis, M. B. (2008). Integrative selfknowledge: Correlations and incremental validity of a cross-cultural scale developed in Iran and the United States. Journal of Psycholology, 142, 395-412.
[14] Grossarth-Maticek, R., & Eysenck, H. J. (1995). Self-regulation and mortality from cancer, coronary heart disease, and other causes: A prospective study. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 781-795.
[15] Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1993). Anxiety. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp. 328-364). New York: Macmillan.
[16] Howell, D. C. (2007). Statistical methods for psychology (6th ed.). Belmont, California: Duxbury Press.
[17] Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to under parameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424-453.
[18] Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
[19] Ibanez, M. I., Ruiperez, M. A., Moya, J., Marques, M. J., & Ortet, G. (2005). A short version of the self-regulation inventory (SRI-S). Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1055-1059.
[20] Ingram, R. E., Kendall, P. C., Smith, T. W., Donnell, C., & Ronan, K. (1987). Cognitive specificity in emotional distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 734-742.
[21] Jones, R. G. (1968). A factorial measure of Ellis’ irrational belief system, with personality and maladjustment correlates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 29, 4379B-4380B.
[22] Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8: Users reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
[23] Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psvchometrika, 39, 1-36.
[24] Kendall, P. C., & Hollon, S. D. (1989). Anxious self-talk: Development of the anxious self-statement questionnaire (ASSQ). Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13, 81-93.
[25] Khodayarifard, M., Spielberger, C. D., Gholamali Lavasani, M., & Akbari Zardkhaneh, S. (2012). Psychometric properties of farsi version of the Spielberger’s state-trait anger expression inventory-2 (FSTAXI-2). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82, 325-329.
[26] Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
[27] Lyons, W. (1986). The disappearance of introspection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[28] Marsh, H. W., & Perry, C. (2005). Does a positive self-concept contribute to winning gold medals in elite swimming? The causal ordering of elite athlete self-concept and championship performances. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 71-91.
[29] Meichenbaum, D. H. (1977). Cognitive behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum.
[30] Mohammadi, A., Zamāni, R., & Fatā, L. (2008). Validation of a Persian version of the obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised in a student sample. Psychological Research, 21, 66-77.
[31] Morin, A. (2005). Possible links between self-awareness and inner speech: Theoretical background, underlying mechanisms, and empirical evidence. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12, 115-134.
[32] Raines-Eudy, R. (2000). Using structural equation modeling to test for differential reliability and validity: An empirical demonstration. Structural Equation Modeling, 7, 124-141.
[33] Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. San Diego: Academic Press.
[34] Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
[35] Sāhebi, A., Asghari, M., & Salari, R. (2006). Validation of depression anxiety stress scale in Iranian population. Iranian Psychology, 4, 299-312.
[36] Schwartz, R. M., & Garamoni, G. L. (1989). Cognitive balance and psychopathology: Evaluation of an information processing model of positive and negative states of mind. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 271-294.
[37] Shirazi, S. (2006). The role of self-concept in relationship between depression and irrational thought among students. Masters Thesis, Tehran: Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University.
[38] Siegrist, M. (1995). Inner speech as a cognitive process mediating selfconsciousness and inhibiting self-deception. Psychological Reports, 76, 259-265.
[39] SPSS Inc. (2009). SPSS statistical algorithms. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
[40] Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
[41] Tanzer, N. K., & Sim, C. Q. E. (1999). Adapting instruments for use in multiple languages and cultures: A review of the ITC guidelines for test adaptations. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 15, 258-269.
[42] Torkzādeh, G., Koufteros, X., & Pflughoeft, K. (2003). Confirmatory analysis of a computer self-efficacy instrument. Structural Equation Modeling, 10, 263-275.
[43] Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
[44] Vygotsky, L. S. (1934). Thinking and language. Translated by Behruz Azabdaftari (1998). Tehran: Nima Publication.
[45] Watkins, E., & Baracaia, S. (2002). Rumination and social problem solving in depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 1179-1189.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.