Evaluation of the contrast between tissues and thermal lesions in rabbit in vivo produced by high intensity focused ultrasound using fast spin echo MRI sequences


In this paper the goal was to measure the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of fast spin echo (FSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in detecting thermal lesions created by high intensity focused ul-trasound (HIFU) in rabbit kidney, liver, heart, and brain and lamb pancreas. A spherically focused transducer was used which is navigated inside MRI by a custom made positioning device. A simple simu-lation model was developed which predicts the CNR for the two FSE MRI sequences. The maximum con-trast measured with T1-W FSE ranges from 10 to 25. For all 5 tissues of interest if one uses TR between 400 and 500 ms the contrast is maximized. The T1 and T2 value of lesion depends strongly on the host tissue and is always lower than the host tissue. The greater the difference in T1 value, the greater the CNR. The simulated model for predicting the CNR was proven successful. The CNR measured with T2-W FSE varies between 12 and 15 for all 5 tissues. With T2-W FSE if one uses TE between 40 and 50 ms, the contrast is maximized.

Share and Cite:

Hadjisavvas, V. , Ioannides, K. , Komodromos, M. , Mylonas, N. and Damianou, C. (2011) Evaluation of the contrast between tissues and thermal lesions in rabbit in vivo produced by high intensity focused ultrasound using fast spin echo MRI sequences. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 4, 51-61. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2011.41007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Watkin, N.A., Morris, S.B., Rivens, I.H. and Ter Haar, G.R. (1997) High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of the kidney in a large animal model. Journal of Endourology, 11, 191-196. doi:10.1089/end.1997.11.191
[2] Roberts, W.W., Hall, T.L., Ives, K., Wolf, J.S., Jr, Fowlkes, J.B. and Cain, C.A. (2006) Pulsed cavitational ultrasound: A noninvasive technology for controlled tissue ablation (histotripsy) in the rabbit kidney. Journal of Urology, 175, 734-738. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00141-2
[3] Vallancien, G., Chartier-Kastler, E., Harouni, M., Chopin, D. and Bougaran, J. (1993) Focused extracorporeal pyrotherapy: Experimental study and feasibility in man. Seminars in Urology, 11, 7-9.
[4] Susani, M., Madersbacher, S., Kratzik, C., Vingers, L. and Marberger, M. (1993) Morphology of tissue destruction induced by focused ultrasound. European Urology, 23, 34-38.
[5] Wu, F., Wang, Z.B., Chen, W.Z., Bai, J., Zhu, H. and Qiao, T.Y. (2003) Preliminary experience using high intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of patients with advanced stage renal malignancy. Journal of Urology, 170, 2237-2240. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000097123.34790.70
[6] Marberger, M., Schatzl, G., Cranston, D. and Kennedy, J.E. (2005) Extracorporeal ablation of renal tumours with high-intensity focused ultrasound. BJU International, 95, 52-55. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2005.05200.x
[7] Hacker, A., Michel, M.S., Marlinghaus, E., Kohrmann, K.U. and Alken, P. (2006) Extracorporeally induced ablation of renal tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound. BJU International, 97, 779-785. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06037.x
[8] Klingler, C., Susani, M., Seip, R., Mauermann, J., Sanghvi, N. and Marberger, M. (2008) A novel approach to energy ablative therapy of small renal tumours: laparoscopic high-intensity focused ultrasound. European Urology, 53, 810-818. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2007.11.020
[9] Frizzell, L. (1988) Threshold dosages for damage to mammalian liver by high intensity focused ultrasound. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 35, 578-581. doi:10.1109/58.8036
[10] ter Haar, G., Sinnett, D. and Rivens, I. (1989) High intensity focused ultrasound—A surgical technique for the teatment of discrete liver tumors. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 34, 1743-1750. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/34/11/021
[11] Sibille, A., Pra,t F., Chapelon, J.Y., Fadil, F.A., Henry, L., Theillere, Y., Ponchon, T. and Cathignol, D. (1993) Extracorporeal ablation of liver tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound. Oncology, 50, 375-379. doi:10.1159/000227213
[12] Chen, L., Rivens, I., ter Haar, G., Riddler, S., Hill, C.R. and Bensted, J.P. (1993) Histological changes in rat liver tumours treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 19, 67-74. doi:10.1016/0301-5629(93)90019-K
[13] Chen, L., ter Haar, G., Robertson, D., Bensted, J.P. and Hill, C.R. (1999) Histological study of normal and tumor-bearing liver treated with focused ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 25, 847-56. doi:10.1016/S0301-5629(99)00028-9
[14] Yang, R., Reilly, C.R., Rescorla, F.J., Faught, P.R., Sanghvi, N.T., Fry, F.J., Franklin Jr, T.D., Lumeng, L. and Grosfeld, J.L. (1991) High-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of experimental liver cancer. Archives of Surgery, 126, 1002-1010.
[15] Sibille, A., Prat, F., Chapelon, J.Y., abou el Fadil, F., Henry, L., Theilliere, Y., Ponchon, T. and Cathignol, D. (1993) Characterization of extracorporeal ablation of normal and tumor-bearing liver tissue by high intensity focused ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 19, 803-813. doi:10.1016/0301-5629(93)90096-7
[16] Prat, F., Centarti, M., Sibille, A., Fadil, F.A., Henry, L., Chapelon, J.Y. and Cathignol, D. (1995) Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound for VX2 liver tumors in the rabbit. Hepatology, 21, 832-836.
[17] Cheng, S.Q., Zhou, Z.D., Tang, Z.Y., Yu, Y., Wang, H.Z., Bao, S.S. and Qian, D.C. (1997) High-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of experimental liver tumour. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 123, 219-223. doi:10.1007/s004320050050
[18] Chen, L., ter Haar, G., Hill, C.R., Eccles, S.A. and Box, G. (1998) Treatment of implanted liver tumors with focused ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 24, 1475-1488. doi:10.1016/S0301-5629(98)00134-3
[19] Vallancien, G., Harouni, M., Veillon, B., Mombet, A., Prapotnich, D., Brisset, J.M. and Bougaran, J. (1992) Focused extracorporeal pyrotherapy: Feasibility study in man. Journal of Endourology, 6, 173-181. doi:10.1089/end.1992.6.173
[20] Wu, F., Chen, W. and Bai, J. (1999) Effect of high-inten- sity focused ultrasound on patients with hepatocellular cancer–preliminary report. Chinese Journal of Ultrasonog, 8, 213-216.
[21] Wu, F., Wang, Z.B., Chen, W.Z., Zou, J.Z., Bai, J., Zhu, H., Li, K.Q., Xie, F.L., Jin, C.B., Su, H.B., et al. (2004) Extracorporeal focused ultrasound surgery for treatment of human solid carcinomas: Early Chinese clinical experience. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 30, 245- 260. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2003.10.010
[22] Li, C.X., Xu, G.L., Jiang, Z.Y., Li, J.J., Luo, G.Y., Shan, H.B., Zhang, R. and Li, Y. (2004) Analysis of clinical effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on liver cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 10, 2201-2204.
[23] Rowland, I.J., Rivens, I., Chen, L., Lebozer, C.H., Collins, D.J., ter Haar, G.R. and Leach, M.O. (1997) MRI study of hepatic tumours following high intensity focused ultrasound surgery. British Journal of Radiology, 70, 144-153.
[24] Jolesz, F., Hynynen, K., McDannold, N., Freundlich, D. and Kopelman, D. (2004) Noninvasive thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by using magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound. Gastroenterology, 127, S242-S247. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.056
[25] Kopelman, D., Inbar, Y., Hanannel, A., Freundlich, D., Castel, D., Perel, A., Greenfeld, A., Salamon, T., Sareli, M., Valeanu, A. and Papa, M. (2006) Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS): Ablation of liver tissue in a porcine model. European Journal of Radiology, 59, 157-162. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2006.04.008
[26] Fry, W., Mosberg, W., Barnard, J. and Fry, F. (1954) Production of focal destructive lesions in the central nervous system with ultrasound. Journal of Neurosurgery, 11, 471-478. doi:10.3171/jns.1954.11.5.0471
[27] Lele, P.P. (1962) A simple method for production of trackless focal lesions with focused ultrasound. Journal of Physiology, 160, 494-512.
[28] Fry, F. and Johnson, L.K. (1978) Tumor irradiation with intense ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 4, 337-341. doi:10.1016/0301-5629(78)90022-4
[29] Britt, R.H., Lyons, B.E., Pounds, D.W., Prionas, S.D. (1983) Feasibility of ultrasound hyperthermia in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Med Instrumentation, 7, 172-177.
[30] Guthkelch, A.N., Carter, L.P., Cassady, J.R., Hynynen, K.H., Iacono, R.P., Johnson, P.C., Obbens, E.A., Roemer, R.B., Seeger, J.F. and Shimm, D.S. (1991) Treatment of malignant brain tumors with focused ultrasound hyperthermia and radiation: Results of a phase I trial. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 10, 271-284. doi:10.1007/BF00177540
[31] Vykhodtseva, N.I., Hynynen, K. and Damianou, C. (1994) Pulse duration and peak intensity during focused ultrasound surgery: theoretical and experimental effects in rabbit brain in vivo. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 20, 987-1000. doi:10.1016/0301-5629(94)90058-2
[32] Hynynen, K., Vykhodtseva, N.I., Chung, A.H., Sorrentino, V., Colucci, V. and Jolesz, F.A. (1997) Ther- mal effects of focused ultrasound on the brain: determi- nation with MR imaging. Radiology, 204, 247-253.
[33] Vykhodtseva, N., Sorrentino, V., Jolesz, F.A., Bronson, R.T. and Hynynen, K. (2000) MRI detection of the ther- mal effects of focused ultrasound on the brain. Ultra- sound in Medicine & Biology, 26, 871-880. doi:10.1016/S0301-5629(00)00216-7
[34] Hynynen, K. McDannold, N. Vykhodtseva, N. and Jolesz, F. (2001) Noninvasive MR Imaging–guided Focal Open- ing of the Blood-Brain-Barrier in Rabbits. Radiology, 230, 640-646. doi:10.1148/radiol.2202001804
[35] Hynynen, K., McDannold, N., Martin, H., Jolesz, F. and Vykhodtseva, N. (2003) The threshold for brain damage in rabbits induced by bursts of ultrasound in the presence of an ultrasound contrast agent (Optison), Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 29, 473-481. doi:10.1016/S0301-5629(02)00741-X
[36] Hynynen, K., McDannold, N., Sheikov, N., Jolesz, F. and Vykhodtseva, N. (2005) Local and reversible blood–brain barrier disruption by noninvasive focused ultrasound at frequencies suitable for trans-skull sonications. Neuroimage, 24, 12-20. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.06.046
[37] Whittington, R., Neuberg, D., Tester, W.J., Benson 3rd, A.B. and Haller, D.G. (1995) Protracted intravenous fluorouracil infusion with radiation therapy in the management of localized pancreaticobiliary carcinoma: A phase I Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 13, 227-232.
[38] Wu, F, Wang, Z.B., Zhu, H., Chen, W.Z., Zou, J.Z., Bai, J., Li, K.Q., Jin, C.B., Xie, F.L. and Su, H.B. (2005) Feasibility of US-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: Initial experience. Radiology, 236, 1034-1040. doi:10.1148/radiol.2362041105
[39] Hwang, J.H., Yak-Nam, W., Starr, F., Xinbo, F., Marla, P., Warren, C. and Mitchell, S. (2006) The development of a large animal model to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of extracorporeal HIFU therapy of the pancreas. Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Thera- peutic Ultrasound. Oxford, 30 August-2 September 2006.
[40] Xiong, L., Huang, X., Yao, S., Yu, J., Hwang, J., Wang, X. and Fei, X. (2006) An experimental study of high inten- sity focused ultrasound on pig’s pancreas and results of early human clinical experience in pancreatic cancer. Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Thera- peutic Ultrasound. Oxford, 30 August-2 September 2006.
[41] He, D.S., Zimmer, J.E., Marcus, F.I., et al. (1995) Appli- cation of ultrasound energy for intracardiac ablation of arrhythmias. European Heart Journal, 16, 961-966.
[42] Strickberger, S.A., Tokano, T., Kluiwstra, J.A., et al. (1999) Extracardiac ablation of the canine atrioventricu- lar junction by use of high intensity focused ultrasound. Circulation, 100, 203-208.
[43] Lee, L.A., Simon, C., Bove, E.L., et al. (2000) High in- tensity focused ultrasound effect on cardiac tissues: Potential for clinical application. Echocardiography, 17, 563-566. doi:10.1046/j.1540-8175.2000.00563.x
[44] Engel, D.J., Muratore, R., Hirata, K., Otsuka, R., Fuji- kura, K., Sugioka, K., Marboe, C., Lizzi, F.L. and Homma, S. (2006) Myocardial lesion formation using high-intensity focused ultrasound. Journal of the Ameri- can Society of Echocardiography, 19, pp. 932-937.
[45] Schmidt, B., Antz, M., Ernst, S., et al. (2007) Pulmonary vein isolation by high intensity focused ultrasound: first in man study with a steerable balloon catheter. Heart Rhythm, 4, 575-584. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.01.017
[46] Wong, T., Markides, V., Peters, N.S., et al. (2006) Anat- omic left atrial circumferential ablation to electrically isolate pulmonary veins using a novel focused ultrasound balloon catheter. Heart Rhythm, 3, 370-371. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.09.006
[47] Abe, Y., Otsuka, R., Muratore, R., Fujikura, K., Okajima, K., Suzuki, K., Wang, J., Marboe, C., Kalisz, A., Ketter- ling, J.A., Lizzi, F.L. and Homma, S. (2007) In vitro mi- tral chordal cutting by high intensity focused ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 34, 400-405. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2007.09.003
[48] Otsuka, R., Fujikura, K., Hirata, K., Pulerwitz, T., Oe, Y., Suzuki, T., Sciacca, R., Marboe, C., Wang, J., Burkhoff, D., Muratore, R., Lizzi, F. and Homma, S. (2005) In Vitro Ablation Of Cardiac Valves Using High-Intensity Fo- cused Ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 31, pp. 109-114. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2004.09.009
[49] Damianou, C., Pavlou, M., Velev, O., Kyriakou, K. and Trimikliniotis, M. (2004) High intensity focused ultrasound ablation of kidney guided by ΜRI. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 30, 397-404.
[50] Hynynen, K., McDannold, N., Mulkern, R. and Jolesz, F. (2000) Temperature monitoring in fat with MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 43, 901-904. doi:10.1002/1522-2594(200006)43:6<901:AID-MRM18>3.0.CO;2-A
[51] Hynynen, K, Darkazanli, A, Unger, E. and Schenck, J.F. (1993) MRI-guided noninvasive ultrasound surgery. Medical Physics, 20, 107-115 doi:10.1118/1.597093
[52] McDannold, N., Fossheim, S.L., Rasmussen, H., Martin, H., Vykhodtseva, N. and Hynynen, K. (2004) Heat-acti- vated liposomal MR contrast agent: Initial in vivo results in rabbit liver and kidney. Radiology, 230, 743-752. doi:10.1148/radiol.2303021713

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.