The Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana Supplementation and Exercise Training on Hematopoietic System in Rats


The aim of this study is to compare the effects of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana supplementation at 300 mg/ml and exercise training on some immuno indicator parameters in Rats. The study was carried out in the College of Health Sciences, Department of Hematology, Igbinedion University, Okada between the Month of June and July, 2012. Following 30 days post-oral administration of extracts on (Group 2 and Group 3), exercise training on (Group 2 and Group 4) and No treated on Group 1, hematological parameters were determined using the sysmex® Automated Hematological Analyzer, while CD4 and CD8 cells were estimated using Partec cyflow counter and serum IgG is determined using the ELISA Method. CD4 cells, CD8, and Total WBC count show a statistically significant increase while Hb concentration and IgG level show a statistically significant decrease in Group 2 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). Total WBC count shows a statistically significant increase against the control Group, while CD4 cell, CD8 cell count, Hb-concentration and IgG level show a statistically insignificant increase (P > 0.05), Table 2. Acalypha wilkesiana at a concentration of 300 mg/g/day seems to be immuno-protective in Rats. Single or combine effects of prolonged exercise and A. wilkesiana produce significant change in some immuno indicators parameters. However, the molecular mechanism behind their combined effect would require further investigation.

Share and Cite:

A. Ehiaghe, J. Ehiaghe, I. Bright and I. Roland, "The Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana Supplementation and Exercise Training on Hematopoietic System in Rats," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 1834-1838. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49225.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] [1] S. Christman, “Alalypha Wilkesiana LC, Florida,” 2004. Http/www.floridata.Com/ref/Asalpha wil.cfm
[2] E. F. Ciliman, Acalypha Wilkesiana Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fact Sheet FPS, 1999.
[3] S. K. Basil, J. E. Thomas and S. N. Acharya, “Prospects for Growth in Global Nutraceutical and Functional Food Markets: A Canadian Perspective,” Austral Journal of Basil Applied Science, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2007, pp. 637-649. http:/
[4] AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), “Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC,” 18th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 2006.
[5] A. O. Ogundaini, “From Greens into Medicine: Taking a Lead from Nature,” In: Inaugural Lecture Series 176, OAU Press Limited, Ile-Ife, 2005, pp. 12-15. http:/ pharmacy.aogund.pdf
[6] J. C. Ikewuchi, A. Anyadiegwu, E. V. Ugono and S. O. Okungbowa, “Effect of Acalypha Wilkesiana on Plasma Sodium and Potassium Concentration of Normal Rabbits,” Pakistan Jorunal of Nutrition, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2008, pp. 130-132. doi:10.3923/pjn.2008.130.132
[7] B. Best, “Phytochemical as Nutraceutical,” 2006. http// nutreut/phytochemical.html
[8] O. M. Kandil, T. H. Abdellah and A. Elkhadi, “Garlic and the Immune System in Humans: Its Effects on Natural Killer Cells,” Federal Procedures, Vol. 46, 1987, p. 441.
[9] M. J. Stampfer, F. B. Hu, J. E. Manson, E. B. Rimm and W. C. Willet, “Primary prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Women through Diet and Lifestyle,” New England Jorunal of Medicine, Vol. 343, No. 1, 2000, pp. 16-22. doi:10.1056/NEJM200007063430103
[10] F. B. Hu, J. Manson, M. Stampfer and C. Graham, “Diet, Lifestyle and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 345, No. 11, 2001, pp. 790-797. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010492
[11] A. Cornil, G. Decoster and J. Copinschi, “Effects of Muscular Exercise on the Plasma Level of Cortisol in Man,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 10, 1965, pp. 60-63.
[12] O. O’Connor, M. Crowe and W. Spinks, “Effects of Static Stretching on Leg Capacity during Cycling,” Turin, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2005, pp. 52-56.
[13] J. Wilmore and H. Knittgen, “Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Improving Fitness for Health Benefits,” The Physician and Sports Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2003, p. 45. doi:10.3810/psm.2003.05.367
[14] N. De Vos, N. Singh, D. Ross and T. Stavrines, “Optimal Load for Increasing Muscle Power during Explosive Resistance Training on Older Adults,” The Journals of Gerontology, Vol. 60A, No. 5, 2005, pp. 638-647.
[15] J. Kirkwood and H. Robert, “The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animal,” Wiley, Blackwell, 2010, p. 29.
[16] Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council, “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,” 8th Edition, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, American Academy of Sciences, National Research Council of the National Academics. The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 1996, pp. 11-31.
[17] A. Sofowora, “Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa,” John Wiley, Chichester, 1982, p. 179.
[18] M. Hashemi, M. Bayat, A. R. Azizi-Saraji and M. Enterzari, “The Effects of Swimming Exercise on Experimental Diabetic Myopathy in Rats,” World Journal of Zoology, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2009, pp. 216-222.
[19] J. Ochei and A. Kolhatkar, “Methods of Euthanasia,” In: J. Ochei and A. Kolhatkar, Eds., Medical Laboratory Science, Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2006, p. 1221.
[20] O. I. Samuel, N. Thomas, O. U. Ernest, N. N. Imelda, N. S. Elvis and E. Ifeyinwa, “Comparison of Hematological Parameters Determined by the Sysmex KX-2IN Automated Hematology Analyzer and the Manual Count,” BMC Clinical Pathology, Vol. 10, 2006, pp. 3-5. doi:10.1186/1472-6890-10-3
[21] Partec Cyflow Counter (PCC), “Typical Steps of Particle Analysis Using Partec Cyflow Counter,” Instrument Operating Manual, Partec GmbH OHO-Hann-str 32, Munster, 2010, pp. 5-8.
[22] P. Tiidus, “Radical Species in Inflammation and Overtraining,” Canadian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 76, No. 6, 1998, pp. 533-538. doi:10.1139/y98-047
[23] C. Leeuwenburgh and J. Heinecke, “Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Exercises,” Curriculum of Medical Chemistry, Vol. 8, No. 7, 2007, pp. 829-838.
[24] D. C. Nieman, S. L. Nehlsen-Cannarella and K. M. Donohue, “The Effect of Acute Moderate Exercise on Leukocyte and lymphocyte Subpopulation,” Medical Science Sport Exercise, Vol. 22, 1991, pp. 578-585.
[25] B. K. Pedersen, N. Tvede and F. R. Hansin, “Modulation of Natural Killer Cell Activitity in Peripheral Blood by Physical Exercise,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, Vol. 72, 1998, pp. 673-678.
[26] E. Elinav, G. Pinsker, R. Safadi, O. Pappo, M. Bromberg and E. Anis, “Association between Consumption of Herbalife-Nutritional Supplements and Acute Hepatotoxicity,” Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2007, pp. 514-520. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2007.06.016
[27] F. A. Ehiaghe, I. J. Ehiaghe, S. T. Aladenika, S. M. O. Etikerentse, A. I. Ikusemoro, B. H. Oladeinde, E. O. Osakue, S. S. Enitan and J. K. Fadairo, “The Characteristics of Pulmonary Tuberculosis amongst Patients Attending Chest Clinic, Including Age, Sex, Occupation and Hemoglobin Concentration in Benin City, Nigeria,” Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Vol. 3, 2013, pp. 14-18. doi:10.4236/ojcd.2013.31004
[28] O. Ebrahim, P. I. Folb and J. P. Robson, “Blunted Erythropoietin Response to Anemia in Tuberculosis,” European Journal of Hematology, Vol. 55, No. 4, 1995, pp. 251-254. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0609.1995.tb00267.x

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.