Variation of Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Crystals in Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume)


This research had aimed to determine variations in form of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in porang. Slides for microscopic observation were prepared from sliced leaf, petiole, and tuber of porang. Sliced organs were cleared by using modified clearing method. The parameters that were observed included form and variety of morphology type of CaOx crystals. Microscopic observation showed there were four basic forms of crystals, i.e., druse, raphide, prism and styloid with some variation of diverse types, each of which had 49, 10, 8, and 5 variations. CaOx crystals, based on the size, were grouped into large (20-250 μm) and small (1-15 μm) crystals.

Share and Cite:

N. Chairiyah, N. Harijati and R. Mastuti, "Variation of Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Crystals in Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume)," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9, 2013, pp. 1765-1773. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49217.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. Barabe, C. Lacroix, M. Chouteau and M. Gibernau, “On the Presence of Extracellular Calcium Oxalate Crystals on the Inflorescences of Araceae,” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 146, No. 2, 2004, pp. 181-190. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00318.x
[2] V. R. Franceschi and P. A. Nakata, “Calcium Oxalate in Plant: Formation and Function,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2005, pp. 41-71. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144106
[3] H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer, J. Imsande and H. T. Horner, “Quantitative Determination of Calcium Oxalate and Oxalate in Developing Seeds of Soybean (Leguminosae),” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 84, No. 9, 1997, pp. 1042-1046. doi:10.2307/2446147
[4] C. J. Prychid and P. J. Rudall, “Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Monocotyledons: A Review of Their Structure and Systematics,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 84, No. 6, 1999, pp. 725-739. doi:10.1006/anbo.1999.0975
[5] R. C. Keating, “Systematic Occurrence of Raphide Crystals in Araceae,” Annals of The Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 91, 2004, pp. 495-504.
[6] G. G. Cote, “Diversity and Distribution of Idioblasts Producing Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Dieffenbachia seguine (Araceae),” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 96, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1245-1254. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800276
[7] A. Crowther, “Morphometric Analysis of Calcium Oxalate Raphides and Assessment of Their Taxonomic Value for Archaeological Microfossil Studies,” Queensland Uni-versity, Brisbane, 2009, pp. 120-128.
[8] S. Pitojo, “Suweg,” Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 2007.
[9] C. J. Prychid, R. S. Jabaily and P. J. Rudall, “Cellular Ultrastructure and Crystal Development in Amorphophallus (Araceae),” Annals of Botany, Vol. 101, No. 7, 2008, pp. 983-995. doi:10.1093/aob/mcn022
[10] J. M. Genua and C. J. Hillson, “The Occurrence, Type and Location of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in the Leaves of Fourteen Species of Araceae,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 56, 1985, pp. 351-361.
[11] M. H. Grayum, “Evolution and Phylogeny of the Araceae,” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 77, 1990, pp. 628-697. doi:10.2307/2399668
[12] S. J. Mayo, J. Bogner and P. C. Boyce, “The Genera of Araceae,” The Trustees, Kew, 1997.
[13] R. C. Keating, “Leaf Anatomical Characters and Their Value in Understanding Morphoclines in the Araceae,” The Botanical Review, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2003, pp. 510-523. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0510:LACATV]2.0.CO;2
[14] G. G. Cote, “Distribution of Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Floral Organs of Araceae in Relation to Pollination Strategy,” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 99, No. 7, 2012, pp. 1-12. doi:10.3732/ajb.1100499
[15] H. Ilarslan, R. G. Palmer and H. T. Horner, “Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Developing Seeds of Soybean,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 88, No. 2, 2001, pp. 243-257. doi:10.1006/anbo.2001.1453
[16] C. Meric, “Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Aster squamatus and Bellis perennis (Asteraceae: Astereae),” Phytologia Balcanica, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2009, pp. 255-259.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.