Effects of Annealing Conditions on ZnO Buffer Layer for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells


A solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as the buffer layer with optimized processes especially the annealing conditions for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) has been demonstrated. Firstly the thickness of ZnO buffer layer was optimized, and different annealing conditions including temperature and time have also been taken into consideration. And the best Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) 3.434% was observed when the ZnO buffer layer was spin–coated at 1500 rpm and annealed at 275 for 5 min, and AFM results showed that morphology of this ZnO film has the best uniformity which was beneficial to form high quality polymer composite active layer.

Share and Cite:

C. Liu, L. Zheng, Z. Gao, Y. Gan, J. Zhang and C. Li, "Effects of Annealing Conditions on ZnO Buffer Layer for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells," Optics and Photonics Journal, Vol. 3 No. 2B, 2013, pp. 222-226. doi: 10.4236/opj.2013.32B052.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] G. Li, R. Zhu and Y. Yang, “Polymer Solar Cells,” Nature Photonics, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 153-161.
[2] G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang and Y. Yao, “High-Efficiency Solution Processable Polymer Photovoltaic Cells by Self-Organization of Polymer Blends,” Nature Materials, Vol. 4, 2005, pp. 864-868. doi:10.1038/nmat1500
[3] J. Peet, J. Y. Kim and N. E. Coates, “Efficiency Enhancement in Low-Bandgap Polymer Solar Cells by Processing with Alkane Dithiols,” Nature Materials, Vol. 6, 2007, pp. 497-500. doi:10.1038/nmat1928
[4] L.M. Chen, Z. Hong, G. Li and Y. Yang, “Recent Progress in Polymer Solar Cells: Manipulation of Polymer: Fullerene Morphology and the Formation of Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 21, 2009, pp. 1434–1449. doi:10.1002/adma.200802854
[5] Z. Xu, L. M. Chen and Y. Yang, “Vertical Phase Separation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Fullerene Derivative Blends and its Advantage for Inverted Structure Solar Cells,” Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 19, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1227-1234. doi:10.1002/adfm.200801286
[6] H. H. Liao, L. M. Chen, Z. Xu, G. Li and Y. Yang, “Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cell by Low Temperature Annealing of Cs2CO3 Interlayer,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, 173303, 2008.
[7] G. Li, C.-W. Chu and V. Shrotriya, “Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol.88, 253503, 2006.
[8] G.K. Mor, K. Shankar, M. Paulose, O.K. Vargheseand C.A. Grimes, “High Efficiency Double Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, 152111, 2007.
[9] C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk and P. Schilinsky, “Highly Efficient Inverted Organic Photovoltaics Using Solution Based Titanium Oxide as Electron Selective Contact,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, 233517, 2006.
[10] M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Device Using A Solution-derived ZnO Underlayer,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, 143517, 2006.
[11] L. Vayssieres, “Growth of Arrayed Nanorods and Nanowires of ZnO from Aqueous Solutions,” Advanced Materials, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2003, pp. 464-466. doi:10.1002/adma.200390108
[12] N. Sekine, C.-H. Chou, W. L. Kwan and Y. Yang, “ZnO Nano-Ridge Structure and Its Application in Inverted Polymer Solar Cell,” Organic Electronics, Vol. 10, 2009, pp. 1473-1477. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2009.08.011
[13] T. B. Yang, W. Z. Cai, D. H. Qin and Y. Cao, “Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Thin Film as a Buffer Layer for Polymer Solar Cells with an Inverted Device Structure,” Journal of Physical. Chemistry C, Vol. 114, 2010, pp. 6849-6853. doi:10.1021/jp1003984

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.