Sponge-associated bacteria of Lakshadweep coral reefs, India: resource for extracellular hydrolytic enzymes
Annie Feby, Shanta Nair
DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.14043   PDF    HTML     6,410 Downloads   13,571 Views   Citations


Sponges (Phylum: Porifera) is one of the major groups in the Lakshadweep coral reefs. These sponges harbor diverse bacteria with metabolic potentiality. From biodiversity to biotechnological prospecting, scientific investigations related to sponge associated microorganisms have expanded, but remain rather limited to few geographic locations. In this study, culturable bacteria associated with two demosponges viz Dysidea granulosa, Sigmadocia fibulata and the ambient water were screened for commercially important enzymes such as amylase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, deoxyribonucleic, phosphatase and urease. Amylase and phosphatase were the predominant enzymes produced by >80% of sponge-associated bacteria compared to the ambient water. Nearly 50% of the sponge-associated bacteria expressed multiple enzymatic activities (> 4) with variation in the percentage of expression of individual enzymes. More than 65% of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with sponges were Gammaproteobacteria. The order Vibrionales was the main source for multiple enzyme production. Sponge associated bacteria formed more closely related clusters than the water isolates based upon their activity pattern. High recovery of sponge-associated bacteria with multiple enzymatic activities suggest that these versatile bacteria are yet unexploited potential for bioprospecting.

Share and Cite:

Feby, A. and Nair, S. (2010) Sponge-associated bacteria of Lakshadweep coral reefs, India: resource for extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 1, 330-337. doi: 10.4236/abb.2010.14043.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kleypas, J.A. (1997) Modeled estimates of global reef habitat and carbonate production since the last glacial maximum. Paleoceanography, 12(4), 533-545.
[2] Hooper, J.N.A. and van Soest, R.W.M. (2002). Phylum Porifera. Class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885 Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York.
[3] Vogel, S. (1977) Current-induced flow through living sponges in nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 74(5), 2069- 2071.
[4] Wehrl, M., Steinert, M. and Hentschel, U. (2007) Bacterial uptake by the marine sponge. Aplysina aerophoba. Microbial Ecology, 53(2), 355-365.
[5] Wilkinson, C.R. (1978) Microbial associations in sponges. II. Numerical analysis of sponge and water bacterial populations. Marine Biology, 49(2), 169-176.
[6] Hentschel, U., Usher, K.M. and Taylor, M.W. (2006) Marine sponges as microbial fermenters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 55(2), 167-177.
[7] Wang, G.Y. (2006) Diversity and biotechnological potential of the sponge-associated microbial consortia. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 33(7), 545-551.
[8] Santavy, D.L., Willenz, P. and Colwell, R.R. (1990) Phenotypic study of bacteria associated with the Caribbean sclerosponge, Ceratoporella nicholsoni. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(6), 1750-1762.
[9] Holt, J.G., Krieg, N.R., Sneath, P.H.A., Staley, J.T. and Williams, S.T. (2000). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia, USA.
[10] Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Costilov, R.N., Nester, E.W., Wood, W.A., Kreig, N.R. and Philip, G.B. (1981) Manual of methods for general bacteriology. In: Philips, G.B. Eds., American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, 409-443.
[11] Zdanowski, M.K. and Figuerias, F.G. (1999) CFU bacterial fraction in the esturine upwelling ecosystem of Ria de Vigo, Spain: variability in abundance and their ecophysiological description. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 182, 1-15.
[12] Clarke, K.R., Warwick, R.M., Somerfield, P.J. and Gorley, R.N. (2005) Methods manual: Changes in marine communities; PRIMER v6.1.10.
[13] Sfanos, K., Harmody, D., Dang, P., Ledger, A., Pomponi, S., McCarthy, P. and Lopez, J. (2005) A molecular systematic survey of cultured microbial associates of deep-water marine invertebrates. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 28(3), 242-264.
[14] Wilkinson, C.R., Garrone, R. and Vacelet, J. (1984) Marine sponges discriminate between food bacteria and bacterial symbionts: Electron microscope radioautography and in situ evidence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B-Biological Sciences, 220(1221), 519-528.
[15] Sara, M. (1971) Ultrastructural aspects of the symbiosis between two species of the genus Aphanocapsa (Cyanophyceae) and Ircinia variabilis (Demospongiae). Marine Biology, 11(3), 214- 221.
[16] Marx, J.C., Collins, T., D'Amico, S., Feller, G. and Gerday, C. (2007) Cold-adapted enzymes from marine antarctic microorganisms. Marine Biotechnology, 9(3), 293-304.
[17] Lee, Y.K., Lee, J.H. and Lee, H.K. (2001) Microbial symbiosis in marine sponges. Journal of Microbiology, 39(4), 254-264.
[18] Reiswig, H.M. (1981) Partial Carbon and energy budgets of the bacteriosponge Verongia fistularis (Porifera: Demospongiae) in Barbados. Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective, 2(4), 273-293.
[19] Santavy, D.L. and Colwell, R.R. (1990) Comparison of bacterial communities associated with the Caribbean Sclerosponge Ceratoporella nicholsoni and ambient seawater. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 67, 73-82.
[20] Shanmughapriya, S., Kiran, G.S., Selvin, J., Gandhimathi, R., Baskar, T.B., Manilal, A. and Sujith, S. (2009) Optimization, production, and partial characterization of an alkalophilic amylase produced by sponge associated marine bacterium Halobacterium salinarum MMD047. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 14(1), 67- 75.
[21] Karpushova, A., Brummer, F., Barth, S., Lange, S. and Schmid, R.D. (2005) Cloning, recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of novel esterases from Bacillus sp associated with the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 67(1), 59-69.
[22] Lee, O.O., Lau, S.C.K., Tsoi, M.M.Y., Li, X.C., Plakhotnikova, I., Dobretsov, S., Wu, M.C.S., Wong, P.K., Weinbauer, M. and Qian, P.Y. (2006) Shewanella irciniae sp nov., a novel member of the family Shewanellaceae, isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia dendroides in the Bay of Villefranche, Mediterranean Sea. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 56(12), 2871-2877.
[23] Hauksson, J.B., Andresson, O.S. and Asgeirsson, B. (2000) Heat-labile bacterial alkaline phosphatase from a marine Vibrio sp. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 27(1-2), 66-73.
[24] Graeber, I., Kaesler, I., Borchert, M.S., Dieckmann, R., Pape, T., Lurz, R., Nielsen, P., von Dohren, H., Michaelis, W. and Szewzyk, U. (2008) Spongiibacter marinus gen. nov., sp nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from the boreal sponge Haliclona sp 1. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(3), 585-590.
[25] Zaccone, R., Caruso, G. and Cali, C. (2002) Heterotrophic bacteria in the northern Adriatic Sea: seasonal changes and ecoenzyme profile. Marine Environmental Research, 54(1), 1-19.
[26] Zhang, H., Zhang, F. and Li, Z. (2009) Gene analysis, optimized production and property of marine lipase from Bacillus pumilus B106 associated with South China Sea sponge Halichodria rugosa. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25(7), 1267-1274.
[27] Mohapatra, B.R., Bapuji, M. and Sree, A. (2003) Production of industrial enzymes (Amylase, carboxymethylcellulase and protease) by bacteria isolated from marine sedentary organisms. Acta Biotechnologica, 23(1), 75-84.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.