Applied Mineralogical Studies on Iranian Hard Rock Titanium Deposit


The Qara-aghaj hard rock titanium deposit has been located in the 36 Km at the North-West of Euromieh, Iran. Mineralogical studies performed by XRD, XRF, Optical microscopy and SEM studies indicated that ilmenite, magnetite and apatite are main valuable minerals. The gangue minerals consist of the silicate minerals such as pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and some secondary minerals. Ilmenite in Qara-aghaj ore occurs in three forms: ilmenite grains, exsolved ilmenite lamellae in magnetite and ilmenite particles disseminated in silicate minerals. The grain forms liberated in 150μm are only recoverable by physical methods. The maximum content of TiO2 in ilmenite lattice is determined 48% by EDX. Although the ore has 8.8% average grade of TiO2, the recoverable TiO2 is only about 6.72% the studied sample contained 18.3% ilmenite and the amount of recoverable ilmenite is only about 14% (6.72% TiO2). This is due to the ilmenite exsolutions and inclusions in the magnetite and silicate minerals, and the TiO2 in solid solution in the lattices of these minerals. In fact, about 77% of whole ilmenite content of the ore will be recoverable. EDX analysis showed that Fe is substituted partially in ilmenite by Mn and Mg. Some narrow lamellae of hematite are formed inside ilmenite. By analyzing of magnetite, it was found that the V2O5 content is up to 1%. V3+ is found in magnetite lattices by replacing Fe3+. Analyzing of clinopyroxenes indicated that augite, containing Ti, is the main form of this group. Ilmenite, apatite and magnetite are valuable minerals for production of TiO2, P2O5 and Fe, respectively and the V2O5 can be extracted from magnetite as a by-product.

Share and Cite:

A. Mehdilo and M. Irannajad, "Applied Mineralogical Studies on Iranian Hard Rock Titanium Deposit," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 9 No. 3, 2010, pp. 247-262. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.93020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Colin J Douch, 2001;”Ilmenite, Titanium Dioxide and Titanium”; New Zealand Mining, Vol.30; pp. 30 – 37.
[2] Chernet Tegist, 1999;”Applied Mineralogical Studies on Australian Sand Ilmenite Concentrate with Special Reference to Its Behavior in the Sulphate Process”; Minerals Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 5; pp. 485 – 495.
[3] Chernet Tegist; 1994; “Ore Microscopic Investigation of Selected Fe - Ti Oxides Bearing Samples from Konusaarenneva Mineralization and other Localities in South Western Finland”; Geological Survey of Finland, Department of Mineral Resources, Section for Industrial Minerals.
[4] Tegist Chernet; 1999;”Effect of Mineralogy and Texture in the TiO2 Pigment Production Process of Tellnes Ilmenite Concentrate”; Mineralogy and petrology, Vol. 67; pp. 21 – 32.
[5] Suzanne A. Mcenroe, Peter Robinson and Peter T. Panish; 2000; “Chemical and Petrographic Characterization of Ilmenite and Magnetite in Oxide-rich Cumulates of the Soknsal Region, Rogaland, Norway”; NGU-BULL 436, pp. 49-56.
[6] Karkkainen N. and Appelqvist H.; 1999;”Genesis of a Low-grade Apatite–Ilmenite– Magnetite Deposit in the Kauhaj?rvi Gabbro, Western Finland”; Mineralium Deposita; Vol.34, No. 8; pp. 754-769.
[7] Olli Sarapaa, et al.; 2005; “Exploration Results and Mineralogical Studies on the Lumikangas Apatite-Ilmenite Gabbro, Kauhajoki western Finland”; Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 38, pp. 31-40.
[8] Chernet Tegist; 1999; “Mineralogical and Textural Constraints on Mineral Processing of the Koivusaarenneva Ilmenite Ore, Western Finland”; International Journal of mineral processing, Vol. 57; pp. 153-165.
[9] Chernet Tegist; 2003; “Applied Mineralogical Studies on Iso-Kisko Ilmenite Ore Deposit with Respect to the Ore Amenability to Beneficiation, Kisko, Southern Finland”; Research report, Geological Survey of Finland, Research Laboratory, Espoo.
[10] Kerkkonen, O.; 1979; “The Magnetite-Ilmenite of the Otanmaki Titanium-Iron Ore, Interpretation of the Source and Development”; PhD Thesis, University of Oulu, Finland.
[11] karkkainen,N.,Sarapaa,O.,huuskonen,M.,koistinen,E. & lehtimaki, J.; 1997; “Ilmenite exploration in western Finland” Geological Survey of Finland; Special Paper 23, pp.15–24.
[12] Gramatikopoulos T., Mcken A. and Hamilton C.; 2002; “Vanadium–Bearing Magnetite and Ilmenite Mineralization and Benefication from the Sinarsuk V-Ti project; West Greenland”; CIM Bulletin; Vol. 95. No. 1060; pp. 87-95.
[13] Nantel S.; 2001; “The Sept–Iles Project – A New Apatite/Ilmenite Producer”; CIM Bulletin, No.1049; pp. 59-63.
[14] Rao D. S., et al.; 2005; “Alteration Characteristics Of Ilmenites From South India”; Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 47-59.
[15] Irannajad, M.; 1990; “Pilot Plant Flowsheet Development of the Kahnooj Titanium Ore Deposit”; Report of investigation, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
[16] Irannajad, M.; 2002; “Mineral Processing Studies of Iranian Titanomagnetites Case Study: the Qara-aghaj Titanium Ore”; Report of investigation, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
[17] Mehdilo, A.; 2003; “Mineral Processing Studies of the Qara-aghaj Titanium Ore by Physical Methods”; MSc Thesis, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
[18] Irannajad, M., Mehdilo; A.; 2007; “Laboratory-Based Flowsheet Development of Iranian Ilmenite Upgrading”; IMCET.
[19] Irannajad, M., Mehdilo; A.; 2004; “Concentration of Iranian Titanium Ore by Physical Methods”; 2nd International Gravity Concentration Symposium (Gravity 04), Perth, Australia.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.