Nucleation Reduction Strategy of SrNH4MgHPO4 (Strontium Ammonium Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate) Crystal Growth in Silica Gel Medium and Its Characterization Studies


Kidney stones consist of various chemical compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate is the main inorganic constituent of kidney stones. However, the mechanisms for the formation of crystal mineral oxalate are not clear. In this field of study, there are many theories including nucleation, crystal growth and or aggregation of formation of crystals .The effect of some urinary species such as ammonium oxalates, calcium, citrate, proteins and trace mineral elements have been previously reported by the author. The kidney stone constituents are grown in the kidney environments, the sodium meta silica gel medium (SMS) provides the necessary growth simulation (in-vitro). In the artificial urinary stone growth process, growth parameters within the different chemical environments are identified. The author has reported the growth of urinary crystals such as CHP, SHP, BHP and AHP. In the present study, SrNH4MgHPO4(Strontium Ammonium Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate) crystals have been grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reductions. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out such as FTIR, XRD, TGA/DTA, SEM and etching and the results are reported.

Share and Cite:

J. Kumar, R. Ramesh, G. Kanchana, P. Suresh and P. Sundaramoorthi, "Nucleation Reduction Strategy of SrNH4MgHPO4 (Strontium Ammonium Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate) Crystal Growth in Silica Gel Medium and Its Characterization Studies," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 8 No. 6, 2009, pp. 439-453. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.86039.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S.R.Khan, P.O.Whalen and P.A.Glenton, J.Cryst.Growth 134 (1993) 211.
[2] W.H.Boyce, Am.J.Med.45 (5) (1968) 673.
[3] H.G.Tiselius, Clin.Chim.Acta.122 (1982) 409.
[4] R.W.Marshall and W.G.Robertson, Clin.Chim.Acta.72 (1976) 253.
[5] S.R.Khan, Urol.Int 59 (1997) 59.
[6] R.L.Ryall, A.M.F.Stapleton, in calcium oxalate in Biological system, Edi.S.R.Khan (CRC press) (1995).
[7] C.G.Duarte and F.G.Knox, in text book of renal pathophysiology (Harper and Row (1978).
[8] F.L.Coe, J.H.Parks and J.R.Asplin, N.Engl.J.Med. 327 (1992) 1141.
[9] Maurice Audran and Erick Legrand, Joint Bone spine 67(6) (2000) 509.
[10] Y.Ogawa, T.miyazato and T.Hataano,World j.Surgery, 24(10) (2000) 1154.
[11] D.S.Goldfarb and F.L.Coe, Am.Fam.Physicican,.60(8) (2000) 2269.
[12] D.P.Simpson, Am.J.Physiol.,.224(3)F (1983) 223.
[13] J.L.Mayer and L.Hsmith, Invest.Urol., 13 (1975) 36.
[14] M.J.Nicar, K.Hill and C.Y.C.Pack, J.Bone. Miner.Res., 2 (3) (1987) 215.
[15] D.J.Kok, S.E.Papapoulus and O.L.M.Bijvoet,Lancet, 41 (1986) 1056.
[16] C.Y.C. Pak and Paterson, Arch.Intern.Med.146 (1986) 863.
[17] B.Hess, Miner.Electr.Metab., 20 (1996) 393.
[18] C.Y.C.Pak, Hypocitraturia; a critical review and furture direction,from 8th European symposium on Urolithiasis-Parma,Italy,June 9-12 (1999).
[19] A.Mersmann,Crystallization technology,Hand book,2nd Edi. Marcel Dekker,Inc., (2000).
[20] V.A.Garten and R.B.Head,Phil.Mag.,14 (1966) 1243.
[21] D.J.Kok, The role of crystallization process in mineral oxlates urolithasis, Ph.D thesis,Univerasity of Leiden. (1991).
[22] H.K. Henisch, J Electro Chemical. Soc., 112 (1965) 627.
[23] A.E.Alexander and P.Honson, Colloid Science, Clarendon Press, Oxford, (1949).
[24] W.Eitel, In:Physical chemistry of Silicate University of Chicago Press (1954).
[25] Yean. Chin, J. Urol.,. Vol 86, (1961) 838-854.
[26] C.M. Corns, Ann. Clin. Bio-Cherm, Vol 20, (1983) 20-35.
[27] A.Hesse , D. Bach,. Stone analysis by IR spectroscopy, Clinical and laboratory Aspects, Edi.Alan Rose, University Park Press, Baltimore, PP.87-105, 1982.
[28] J.J.Gilman, J.Johnsion and G.W.Sears, J.Appl.Physics, 29 (1958) 749.
[29] J.J. Gilman, J.Appl.Physics, 27 (1956) 1018.
[30] J.C.Fisher, in: Dissolutions and Mechanical Properties of Crystals, John Wiley and sons, NewYork (1957).
[31] J.B. New Kirk, in: Director observation of Imperfection in crystals, Inter science Publisers, New York (1962).
[32] K. Taukamot, J. Cryst. Growth, 61 b (1983) 99.
[33] H.C.Gates, Thirty years of progress in Surface Science, in: Crystal growth and characterization, (Edi), North Holland, 1975.
[34] H.Bethage, et al, Electron Microscopy in Solid State Physics, Elsevier, Amsterdom, 1987
[35] N. Albon et al, in: Growth and Perfection of Crystals, Wiley, New York, 44, 1958.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.