Investigation of airborne fungi at different altitudes in Shenzhen University
Li Li, Chao Lei, Zhi-Gang Liu
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.25063   PDF    HTML     6,103 Downloads   11,829 Views   Citations


Aim: To investigate the richness of species or genera of airborne fungi, the amount of airborne fungi, and its seasonal variation at different al-titudes in Shenzhen University. The effect of meteorological factors on airborne fungi was also analyzed. Methods: Slide-exposure me- thod and open-plate method were used. Results: There were 27 genera or species of fungus spores identified. Among the identified fungal genus, Cladosporium, Ustilago, Alternaria, Helminth-sporium and Uredinales were more prevalent. There were 18 genera of fungi colonies identified. Among which Penicillium, non-sporulating fungi, Aspergillus, Saccharomyces and Cladosporium were more common. The airborne fungal spores were present in the atmosphere of Shenzhen University all year round. The peaks of airborne spores appeared during April and October, while the lowest numbers were observed during January, July and December from March 2005-Febrary 2006. The highest volumes of fungi colonies were observed during April, October and September, while the lowest numbers were de-tected during in January, July and December or May from March 2005-Febrary 2006. The meteoro-logical factors had no relationship between the total monthly spore count at 10 and 30 meter height. At 70 meter, the total spores count was negatively correlated with solar radiation. Conclusions: Most of the fungi spores decreased along with the increase of altitudes.

Share and Cite:

Li, L. , Lei, C. and Liu, Z. (2010) Investigation of airborne fungi at different altitudes in Shenzhen University. Natural Science, 2, 506-514. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.25063.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Horner, W.E., Helbling, A., Salvaggio, J.E. and Lehrer, S.B. (1995) Fungal allergens. Clinical Microbiology Re-views, 8(2), 161-179.
[2] Niedoszytko, M., Chełmińska, M. and Chełmiński, K. (2002) Fungal allergy--part II. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski, 12(70), 314-317.
[3] Semik-Orzech, A., Barczyk, A. and Pierzchała, W. (2008) The influence of sensitivity to fungal allergens on the development and course of allergic diseases of the respi-ratory tract. Pneumonologia I Alergologia Polska, 76(1), 29-36.
[4] Kurup, V.P., Shen, H.D. and Banerjee, B. (2000) Respi-ratory fungal allergy. Microbes and Infection, 2(9), 1101-1110.
[5] Kakde, U.B., Kakde, H.U. and Saoji, A.A. (2001) Sea-sonal variation of fungal propagules in a fruit market en-vironment, Nagpur (India). Aerobiologia, 17, 177-182.
[6] Katial, R.K., Zhang, Y., Jones, R.H. and Dyer, P.D. (1997) Atmospheric mold spore counts in relation to meteoro-logical parameters. International Journal of Biomete-orology, 41(1), 17-22.
[7] Oliveira, M., Ribeiro, H. and Abreu, I. (2005) Annual variation of fungal spores in atmosphere of Porto: 2003. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 12(2), 309-315.
[8] Ogunlana, E.O. (1975) Fungal air spora at Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 29(4), 458-463.
[9] Moustafa, A.F. and Kamel, S.M. (1976) A study of fungal spore poupulations in the atmosphere of Kuwait. My-copathologia, 59(1), 29-35.
[10] Takahashi, T. (1997) Airborne fungal colony-forming units in outdoor and indoor environments in Yokohama, Japan. Mycopathologia, 139, 23-33.
[11] Marshall, W.A. (1997) Seasonality in antarctic airborne fungal spores. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63(6), 2240-2245.
[12] Al-Suwaine, A.S., Bahkali, A.H. and Hasnain, S.M. (1999) Seasonal incidence of airborne fungal allergens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Mycopathologia, 145(1), 15-22.
[13] Chakraborty, P., Gupta-Bhattacharya, S., Chowdhury, I., Majumdar, M.R. and Chanda, S. (2001) Differences in concentrations of allergenic pollens and spores at different heights on an agricultural farm in West Bengal, India. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 8(2), 123-130.
[14] Mezzari, A., Perin, C., Santos Júnior, S.A., Bernd, L.A. and Gesu, G.D. (2003) Airborne fungi and sensitization in atopic individuals in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, 49(3), 270-273.
[15] Segvić Klarić, M. and Pepeljnjak, S. (2006) A year-round aeromycological study in Zagreb area, Croatia. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 13(1), 55-64.
[16] Zhan, Q.S., Wang, S.H., Li, M.L. and Zhang, W.Y. (1994) Study on quantity and types of allergic fungi in air. Mod-ern Preventive Medicine, 21(2), 67-68. (in Chinese)
[17] Jiang, X.W., Wu, W.J., Yang, C.Y. and Jiang, X.C. (1994) A primanry investigation on airborne allergenic fungi in the eastern district of Changsha. Bulletin of Hunan Medical University, 19(4), 326-328. (in Chinese)
[18] Li, Y.F. and Sun, X.Z. (1994) Investigation of airborne fungi in Xian distict. Journal of Xian Medical University, 15(4), 371-382. (in Chinese)
[19] Fang, R.Q., Xie, S.Q. and Zhan, H.M. (1997) Investiga-tion report of airborne fungus across Kunming city proper. Academic Journal of Kunming Medical College, 18(3), 30-33. (in Chinese)
[20] Wang, M.M. and Liu, T.M. (1997) Prodominant fungi present in the air of a hospital in Nanjing and their sea-sonal variation. Journal of Nanjing Railway Medical College, 16(4), 256-258. (in Chinese)
[21] Zhang, Z.Z., Li, Y., Long, F.Q. and Mo, X. (1999) Inves-tigation of airborne fungi in Nanning Guangxi Province. Guangxi Medical Journal, 21(6), 1121-1124. (in Chinese)
[22] Ning, Y.L., Chang, H.Z. and Zhang, N. (2001) Investiga-tion report of airborne fungus in Baoding City. Journal of Hebei Medical College Continuting Education, 18(3), 40-41. (in Chinese)
[23] Su, H., Lu, X., Chen, W.Y., Zhang, B.B. and Li, Y.J. (2001) Investigation on the atmosphere propagating sen-sitzing Fungi in Wuhan. Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 21(Supplement), 42-43. (in Chinese)
[24] Jin, Z.C., Yin, K.H. and Chen, X.X. (2001) Study of the relationship between airborne fung and asthma in Zhen-jiang city. Practical Preventive Medicine, 8(3), 170-172. (in Chinese)
[25] Huang, J.J., Hong, S.L., Zhou, W. and Yang, Y.C. (2002) Air-borne molds in Chongqing city. Chongqing Medicine, 31(8), 701-703. (in Chinese)
[26] Ye, S.T., Qiao, B.S. and Lu, Y.J. (1992) China allergic aeromycology. People’s Medical Publishing House, Bei-jing. (in Chinese)
[27] Zhou, S.N., Chen, W.T., Burnett, J. and Deng, B.L. (1997) A study of microorganisms in air-conditioned indoor en-vironment. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 17(4), 498-501. (in Chinese)
[28] Hedayati, M.T., Mayahi, S., Aghili, R. and Gohari- mog-hadam, K. (2005) Airborne fungi in indoor and outdoor of asthmatic patients’ home, living in the city of sari. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 4(4), 189-91.
[29] Ana, S.G., Torres-Rodríguez, J.M., Ramírez, E.A., García, S.M. and Belmonte-Soler, J. (2006) Seasonal distribution of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium species isolated in homes of fungal allergic patients. Journal Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immu-nology, 16(6), 357-363.
[30] Lacey, J. (1997). Fungi and actinomycemycetes as aller-gens. In: Kay, A.B. Ed., Allergy and Allergic Diseases, Black Science, London K, 858-883.
[31] Li, D.W. and Kendrick, B. (1995) A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteoro-logical factors. International Journal of Biometeorology, 39(2), 74-80.
[32] Sabariego, S., Guardia, C.D. and Alba, F. (2000) The effect of meteorological factors on the daily variation of airborne fungal spores in Granada (southern Spain). In-ternational Journal of Biometeorology, 44(1), 1-5.
[33] Sabariego, S., Guardia, C.D. and Alba, F. (2004) Aerobi-ological study of Alternaria and Cladosporium conidia in the atmosphere of Almeria (SE Spain). Revista Ibero- americana de Micología, 21(3), 121-127.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.