Analysis of Macro and Micronutrients in Soils from Palestine Using Ion Exchange Membrane Technology


Ion Exchange membrane technology (IEM) is a method that allowed a single extraction process and a single subsequent measurement of different elements that are available in soil. The values of the available forms of the different macro- and micronutrients obtained by IEM extraction were compared with the values of the soluble form obtained by conventional extraction methods. In surface soil sample, the concentrations of available potassium, nitrate, phosphate, iron and boron were 37.7 mg kg–1, 17.5 mg kg–1, 3.6 mg kg–1, 171.0 μg kg–1, and 4.2 μg kg–1 respectively were greater than that of soluble forms of the same elements which were 7.0 mg kg–1, 9.2 mg kg–1, 0.4 mg kg–1, 109.0 μg kg–1, and 1.9 μg kg–1 respectively.

Share and Cite:

Z. Barghouthi, S. Amereih, B. Natsheh and M. Salman, "Analysis of Macro and Micronutrients in Soils from Palestine Using Ion Exchange Membrane Technology," Open Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 44-49. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2012.21007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. S. Ayoub, B. A. McGaw, C. A. Shand and A. J. Mid-wood, “Phytoavailability of Cd and Zn in Soil Estimated by Stableisotope Exchange and Chemical Extraction,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 252, No. 2, 2003, pp. 291-300. doi:10.1023/A:1024785201942
[2] N. C. Brady, “The Nature and Properties of Soils,” Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1990.
[3] P. H. Raven, R. B. Linda and B. J. George, “Environment,” Saunders College Publishing, Orlando, 1995.
[4] E. O. McLean and M. E. Watson, “Soil Measurements of Plant-Available Potassium,” In: R. D. Munson, Ed., Potassium in Agriculture, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1985, pp. 227-308.
[5] R. Durand, N. Bellon and B. Jaillard, “Determining the Net Flux of Charge Released by Maize Roots by Directly Measuring Variations of the Alkalinity in the Nutrient Solution,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 229, No. 2, 2001, pp. 305-318. doi:10.1023/A:1004860326936
[6] M. J. McLaughlin, P. A. Lancaster, P. W. G. Sale, N. C. Uren and K. I. Peverill, “Use of Cation/Anion Exchange Membranes for Multi-Element Testing of Acidic Soils,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 155-156, No. 1, 1993, pp. 223-226. doi:10.1007/BF00025024
[7] K. J Greer and J. J. Schoenau, “A Rapid Method for Assessing Sodicity Hazard Using a Cation Exchange Membrane,” Soil Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996, pp. 287-292. doi:10.1016/0933-3630(95)00025-9
[8] R. R. Schnabel, “Nitrate and Phosphate Recovery from Anion Exchange Resins,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 3-4, 1995, pp. 531-540. doi:10.1080/00103629509369316
[9] P. Qian, J. J. Schoenau and W. Z. Huang, “Use of Ion Exchange Membranes in Routine Soil Testing,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 15-16, 1992, pp. 1791-1804. doi:10.1080/00103629209368704
[10] S. Sato and N. B. Comerford, “Assessing Methods for Developing Phosphorous Desorption Isotherms from Soils Using Anion Exchange Membranes,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 279, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 107-117. doi:10.1007/s11104-005-0437-2
[11] M. B. Turrion, J. F. Gallardo and M. I. Gonzalez, “Extraction of Soil-Available Phosphate, Nitrate, and Sulphate Ions Using Ion Exchange Menbranes and Determination by Ion Exchange Chromatography,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 7-8, 1999, pp.1137-1152.
[12] T. Pare, E. G. Gregorich and B. H. Ellert, “Comparison of Soil Nitrate Extracted by Potassium Chloride and Adsorbed on an Anion Exchange Membrane in Situ,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 5-6, 1995, pp. 883-898. doi:10.1080/00103629509369341
[13] Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem, “Environmental Profile for the West Bank Volume 2: Jericho District,” Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem, Bethlehem, 1995.
[14] L. A. Richards, “Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C, 1954.
[15] J. F. van Staden and R. E. Taljaard, “Determination of Ammonia in Water and Industrial Effluent Streams with the Indophenol Blue Method Using Sequential Injection Analysis,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 344, No. 3, 1997, pp. 281-289. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00523-5
[16] E. Ballesteros, A. Rios and M. Valcárcel, “Integrated Automatic Determination of Nitrate, Ammonium and Organic Carbon in Soil Samples,” Analyst, Vol. 122, No. 4, 1997, pp. 309-313. doi:10.1039/A607849D
[17] F. Zhang, J. Niu, W. Zhang, X. Chen, C. Li, L. Yuan and J. Xie, “Potassium Nutrition of Crops under Varied Regimes of Nitrogen Supply,” Plant Soil, Vol. 335. No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 21-34. doi:10.1007/s11104-010-0323-4
[18] P. M?ser, M. Gierth and J. I. Schroeder, “Molecular Mechanisms of Potassium and Sodium Uptake in Plants,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 247, No. 1, 2002, pp. 43-54. doi:10.1023/A:1021159130729
[19] R. Setia, K. N. Sharma, P. Marschner and H. Singh, “Changes in Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium in a Long-Term Continuous Maize-Wheat Cropping System in India,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 40, No. 21-22, 2009, pp. 3348-3366. doi:10.1080/00103620903325950
[20] Q. Zeng and P. Brown, “Soil Potassium Mobility and Uptake by Corn under Differential Soil Moisture Regimes,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 221, No. 2, 2000, pp. 121-134. doi:10.1023/A:1004738414847
[21] J. Ryan, S. Garabet, K. Harmsen and A. Rashid, “A Soil and Plant Analysis Manual Adapted for the West Asia and North Africa Region,” International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, 1996.
[22] J. -L. Zhang, T. J. Flowers and S. -M. Wang, “Mechanisms of Sodium Uptake by Roots of Higher Plants,” Plant Soil, Vol. 326, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 45-60. doi:10.1007/s11104-009-0076-0
[23] M. Giese, Y. Z. Gao, S. Lin and H. Brueck, “Nitrogen Availability in a Grazed Semi-Arid Grassland Is Dominated by Seasonal Rainfall,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 340, No. 1-2, 2010, pp.157-167. doi:10.1007/s11104-010-0509-9
[24] Z. -Y. Yuan and L. -H. Li, “Soil Water Status Influences Plant Nitrogen Use: A Case Study,” Plant Soil, Vol. 301, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 303-313. doi:10.1007/s11104-007-9450-y
[25] B. van Raij, J. A. Quaggio and N. M. da Silva, “Extraction of Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium from Soils by an Ion-Exchange Resin Procedure,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1986, pp. 547-566. doi:10.1080/00103628609367733
[26] S. M. Helali, H. Nebli, R. Kaddour, H. Mahmoudi, M. Lachaal and Z. Ouerghi, “Influence of Nitrate—Ammonium Ratio on Growth and Nutrition of Arabidopsis thaliana,” Plant Soil, Vol. 336, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 65-74. doi:10.1007/s11104-010-0445-8
[27] M. M. Wander, D. V. McCracken, L. M. Shuman, J. W. Johnson and J. E. Box, “Anion-Exchange Membranes Used to Assess Management Impacts on Soil Nitrate,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 15-16, 1995, pp. 2383-2390.
[28] P. Nesse, J. Grava and P. R. Bloom, “Correlation of Several Tests for Phosphorous with Resin Extractable Phosphorous for 30 Alkaline Soils,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1988, pp. 675- 689.
[29] S. V. Karmarkar, “Quick Ion Chromatographic Determination of Sulfate Alone in Soil Extracts and Natural Waters,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 843-852.
[30] H. D. Foth, “Fundamentals of Soil Science,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978.
[31] R. J. Haynes, “Effects of Soil Acidification on the Chemical Extractability of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and the Growth with Micronutrient Uptake of Highbush Blueberry Plants,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 84, No. 2, 1985, pp. 201-212. doi:10.1007/BF02143184

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.