The Combined Approach When Assessing and Mapping Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination
Massimo V. CIVITA
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.21003   PDF    HTML     7,354 Downloads   13,575 Views   Citations


In early 1980’s, the Italian scientific community, together with a number of institutional decision-makers, realized how urgent it was to protect natural and environmental resources. They agreed that an adequate level of scientifically organized knowledge allows the accurate planning and development of environment systems through the management and direction of the effective development process, but without stopping it. Since the special VAZAR1 project was first set up in 1984, as part of the GNDCI-CNR2 scientific context it has been the cardinal center point of Research National Program “Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment”. The problem of groundwater contamination was examined in this program for the very first time in Italy in an organic and extensive manner as a key for forecasting and prevention purposes. The Italian approaches to assessing and mapping groundwater vulnerability to contamination are essentially based on two main methodologies: 1) the GNDCI Basic Method [1,2] a HCS type approach that can be used for any type of Italian hydrogeologic situation, even where there is a limited number of data. A unified legend and symbols are also defined for each hydrogeologic level. 2) The SINTACS method [2,3], a PCSM developed for use prevalently in areas with a good data base coverage. The methodological approaches described in this paper now make up the Italian standard which has been dealt with in the recent very important Italian Law (152/993) and which are now ratified in the national guidelines [4] produced by ANPA, the Italian National Agency for Environment Protection. The methods, besides Italy [5] have been applied in several other Countries [6–10] and others.

Share and Cite:

V. CIVITA, M. (2010) The Combined Approach When Assessing and Mapping Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2, 14-28. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.21003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. V. Civita, “Legenda unificata per le Carte della vul-nerabilità dei corpi idrici sotterranei: Unified legend for the aquifer pollution vulnerability maps,” Studi sulla Vulnerabilità degli Acquiferi, 1 (Annex), Pitagora Edit. Bologna, pp. 13, 1990.
[2] M. V. Civita, “Le carte della vulnerabilità degli acquiferi all’inquinamento: Teoria & pratica,” [Groundwater vulner-ability maps to contamination: Theory and practice] Pitagora Editrice, Bologna, pp. 325 (with bibliography), 1994.
[3] M. V. Civita and M. De Maio, “Valutazione e cartografia automatica della vulnerabilità degli acquiferi all’ inquina-mento con il sistema parametrico: SINTACS R5, a new parametric system for the assessment and automaticmap ping of groundwater vulnerability to contamination,” Pita-gora Editrice, Bologna, pp. 240, 2000.
[4] M. V. Civita and M. De Maio, “Atlante delle carte di vulnerabilità delle regioni italiane,” [Atlas of vulner- ability maps of the Italian regions] DBMAP, Florence, pp. 366, 2002.
[5] M. V. Civita, M. De Maio, M. Farina, and A. Zavatti, “Linee guida per la redazione e l’uso delle carte della vulnerabilità degli acquiferi all’inquinamento,” [Guide- lines for drawing and use of the groundwater vulnerab- ility maps to contamination] Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente-Manuali e Linee guida, 1 CD, pp. 100, 2001.
[6] M. V. Civita, M. De Maio, and S. Lyakhloufi, “Assess-ment of groundwater intrinsic vulnerability of the Mar-rakesh Haouz aquifer (Morocco) by PCSM SINTACS,” GEAM, Vol. 24, No. 2–3, pp. 107–114, 1999.
[7] J. Uhan, J. Pezdic, and M. V. Civita, “Assessing groundwater vulnerability by SINTACS method in the lower Savinja Valley, Slovenia,” RMZ, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 363–376, 2008.
[8] J. Mejia, R. Rodriguez, and J. Mata, “The role of the river beds in the evaluation of vulnerability, the Lerma River, Salamanca, Mexico,” Proc. 2nd Workshop “Aquifer Vul-nerability and Risk”, Colorno, Parma, pp. 9-10 + CD, September 21–23, 2005.
[9] S. Adelana and Y. X. Xu, “Vulnerability assessment in the cape flat aquifer, South Africa,” Proc. 2nd Workshop “Aquifer Vulnerability and Risk,” Colorno, Parma, pp. 21-22 + CD, September 21–23, 2005.
[10] D. De Ketelaer, H. H?tzl, C. Neukum, M. V. Civita, and G. Sappa, “Hazard analysis and mapping,” In: COST Ac-tion 620 “Vulnerability and Risk Mapping for the Protec-tion of Carbonate (Karst) Aquifers” (Zwahlen F. Edit.), European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, EUR 20912, pp. 86–104, 2004.
[11] M. V. Civita, “La previsione e la prevenzione del rischio di inquinamento delle acque sotterranee a livello region-ale mediante le carte di vulnerabilità,” [Forecasting and prevention of groundwater contamination risk at a re-gional level using vulnerability maps] In Proceedings Conf. Inquinamento delle acque sotterranee: Previsione e prevenzione, pp. 9–17, February 1987.
[12] L. J. Andersen and E. Gosk, “Applicability of vulnerabil-ity maps,” Int. Proceedings Conf. Vulnerab. of Soil and Groundwater to Pollutants, RIVM Proc. And Inf. Vol. 38, pp. 321–332, 1987.
[13] S. S. D. Foster and R. Hirata, “Groundwater pollution risk assessment: A methodology using available data,” Pan Ame. Cent. for Sanit. Engin. and Envir. Scien. (CEPIS) Lima, pp. 81, 1988.
[14] Y. Bachmat and M. Collin, “Mapping to assess ground-water vulnerability to pollution,” Proc. Int. Conf. Vul-nerab. of Soil and Groundwater to pollutants, RIVM Proc. And Inf. Vol. 38, pp. 297–307, 1987.
[15] M. Albinet and J. Margat, “Cartographie de la vulnerabilitè à la pollution des nappes d’eau souterraine,” Bull. BRGM Paris, Vol. 2, 3, 4, pp. 13–22 (with bibliography), 1970.
[16] M. V. Civita, “L’assetto idrogeologico del territorio ital-iano: Risorse e problematiche,”[Hydrogeological outline of the Italian territory] Quaderni S.G.I., 3, 30, pp. (edition on line), 2008.
[17] M. V. Civita, A. Massarutto, and G. Seminara, “Groundwa-ter in Italy: A review,” EASAC Report on Ground Waters in Southern Europe Mediterranean Countries, Atti Conv. Accad. Lincei “Giornata dell’ Acqua 2008” (in print).
[18] J. Vrba and M. V. Civita, “Assessment of groundwater vulnerability,” Guidebook on mapping groundwater vul-nerability, J. Vrba & A. Zaporozec (Edit.) IAH, Int. Con-trib. to Hydrogeol, 16, Heise, Hannover, pp. 131 (with bibliography), 1995.
[19] L. Aller, T. Bennet, J. H. Lehr, R. J. Petty, and G. Hackett, “DRASTIC: A standardized system for evaluating ground- water pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings,” NWWA/EPA Ser., EPA600/287035, Vol. 455 pp. 11 Maps (with bibliography), 1987.
[20] R. Piemonte, “Relazione finale del Progetto Bacino del fiume Tanaro: Studio sui potenziali rischi dovuti all’ allu-vione del novembre 1994 e realizzazione di una rete di monitoraggio delle acque sotterranee nonché identificazi-one dei siti potenzialmente pericolosi e valutazione della vulnerabilità della falda," Torino, pp. 254 (unpublished), 2000.
[21] M. V. Civita, M. De Maio, and E. Suozzi, “Upgrading the hydrogeological potential balance method for high mountain areas,” (in print), 2009.
[22] M. V. Civita and D. Persicani, “Approccio teorico alla definizione e stima della capacità di attenuazione del suolo nei modelli parametrici di valutazione della vulnerabilità degli acquiferi all’inquinamento,” [The- oretic approach when defining and assessing of the at-tenuation capacity of soils within the parametric models of evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to contamina- tion] GEAM, Vol. 4, pp. 209–214, 1996.
[23] IPLA, “La capacità d’uso dei suoli in Piemonte ai fini agricoli e forestali,” Regione Piemonte, Istituto per le Pi-ante da Legno e l’Ambiente, pp. 290, 3 Maps, 1982.
[24] E. Capri, M. V. Civita, A. Corniello, G. Cusimano, M. De Maio, D. Ducci, G. Fait, A. Fiorucci, S. Hauser, A. Pis-ciotta, G. Pranzini, M. Trevisan, A. Delgado Huertas, F. Ferrari, R. Frullini, B. Nisi, M. Offi, O. Vaselli, and M. Vassallo, “Assessment of nitrate contamination risk: The Italian experience,” Journal of Geochemical Exploration, pp. 1–16 (DOI:10.1016/j.gexplo.2009.02.006), 2009.
[25] M. V. Civita, “QSPEC: Software codex,” Realize 1 (in edite), 1997.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.