RETRACTED: Stakeholders’ Perceptions of the Problem of Wetland Degradation in the Ugandan Lake Victoria Basin Uganda


Short Retraction Notice

The paper does not meet the standards of "Natural Resources".

This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

Editor guiding this retraction: Prof.  Miklas Scholz (EiC of NR).

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked "RETRACTED".

Share and Cite:


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


[1] Atkins, J., Burdon, D., Elliott, M. and Gregory, A. (2011) Management of the Marine Environment: Integrating Ecosystem Services and Societal Benefits with the DPSIR Framework in a Systems Approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 215-226.
[2] Global Water Partnership (2015) Integrated Water Resource Management in Eastern Africa: Coping with “Complex” Hydrology. Elanders, Molnlycke.
[3] Ministry of Water and Environment (2019) Uganda Catchment Management Planning Guidelines. Directorate of Water Resources Management, Entebbe.
[4] Ministry of Water and Environment (2019) Uganda Catchment Management Planning Guidelines. Popular Version. Directorate of Water Resource Management, Entebbe.
[5] Ministry of Water and Environment (2017) Report of Stakeholders Engagement and Participation in Catchment Management Planning. Awoja, Mpologoma and Victoria Nile Catchments. Directorate of Water Resource Management, Entebbe.
[6] Nuwagaba, A. and The-Water-Futures-Consortium (2011) Water Futures: Assessing Pathways, Synergies & Tradeoffs in Alleviating Poverty through Sustainable Ecosystem Services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Situational Analysis 1. Uganda & River Rwizi Catchment in the Lake Victoria Management Zone.
[7] Reed, M.S., Graves, A., Dandy, N., Posthumus, H., Hubacek, K., Morris, J., Prell, C., Quinn, C.H. and Stringer, L.C. (2009) Who’s in and Why? A Typology of Stakeholder Analysis Methods for Natural Resource Management. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 1933-1949.
[8] Prusty, B.A.K., Chandra, R. and Azeez, P.A. (2017) Wetland Science. Perspectives from South Asia. Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
[9] Kachali, N.R. (2007) Stakeholder Interactions in Wetlands: Implications for Social Ecological System Sustainability. A Case of Lukanga Swamps, Zambia. MSc Thesis, Lund University, Lund.
[10] Banadda, N., Isabirye, P., Onywere, S., Nampala, P. and Tenywa, J. (2009) Risk Assessment of Integrated and Management of Pollutants in Lake Victoria. VicRes Pollution and Heavy Metal Cluster Workshop, Bujumbura, 2-4 April 2009, 71-88.
[11] Songa, P., Rumohr, J. and Musota, R. (2015) A Shared Water Risk Assessment for a Vulnerable River Basin: River Rwizi in Uganda. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 197, 213-224.
[12] Isabirye, M., Ruysschaert, G., Van linden, L., Poesen, J., Magunda, M.K. and Deckers, J. (2007) Soil Losses Due to Cassava and Sweet Potato Harvesting: A Case Study from Low Input Traditional Agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research, 92, 96-103.
[13] Kakira Sugar Estate (2000) Kakira Sugar Estate Technical Report on Climate. Kakira Sugar Estate, Jinja.
[14] Tukahirwa, J.M.B. (2002) Policies, People and Land Use Change in Uganda: A Case Study in Ntungamo, Lake Mburo and Sango Bay Sites, Land Use Change, Impacts and Dynamics. Project Working Paper No. 17, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi.
[15] Kashaigili, J.J. and Majaliwa, A.M. (2010) Integrated Assessment of Land Use and Cover Changes in the Malagarasi River Catchment in Tanzania. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 35, 730-741.
[16] Hugh, A. and Tara, K. (2003) Applying Local Knowledge: The Contribution of Oral History to Wetland Rehabilitation at Kanyapella Basin, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management, 69, 275-287.
[17] Prince, S., Von Maltitz, G., Zhang, F., Byrne, K., Driscoll, C., Eshel, G., Kust, G., Martínez-Garza, C., Metzger, J.P., Midgley, G., Moreno-Mateos, D., Sghaier, M. and Thwin, S. (2018) Status and Trends of Land Degradation and Restoration and Associated Changes in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions. In: Montanarella, L., Scholes, R. and Brainich, A., Eds., The IPBES Assessment Report on Land Degradation and Restoration, Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, 315-495.
[18] Wanyama, J. (2012) Effect of Land-Use/Cover Change on Land Degradation in the Lake Victoria Basin: Case of Upper Rwizi Catchment, Southwestern Uganda. PhD Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven.
[19] Olson, J., Misana, S., Campbell, D., Mbonile, M. and Mugisha, S. (2004) A Research Framework to Identify the Root Causes of Land Use change Leading to Land Degradation and Changing Biodiversity. The Land Use Change, Impacts and Dynamics Project Working Paper Number 48. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi.
[20] Samandari, A. (2017) Gender-Responsive Land Degradation Neutrality.
[21] Tiwari, K., Sitaula, B., Nyborg, I. and Paudel, G. (2008) Determinants of Farmers’ Adoption of Improved Soil Conservation Technology in a Middle Mountain Watershed of Central Nepal. Environmental Management, 42, 210-222.
[22] Breu, T., Hurni, H., Portner, B., Schwilch, G., Wolfgramm, B., Messerli, P. and Herweg, K. (2011) Sustainable Land Management and Global Development: Factors Affecting Land Users’ Efforts to Adopt and Sustain the Productive Use of Natural Resources. In: Wiesmann, U. and Hurni, H., Eds., Research for Sustainable Development: Foundations, Experiences, and Perspectives, NCCR North-South, Geographica Bernensia, Bern, 427-449.
[23] Featherstone, A. and Goodwin, B. (1993) Factors Influencing a Farmer’s Decision to Invest in Long-Term Conservation Improvements. Land Economics, 69, 76-81.
[24] Akinyemi, B.E., Mushunje, A. and Sinnett, D. (2019) Land Ownership and Usage for Agriculture: Empirical Evidence from South African Living Conditions Survey. Cogent Social Sciences, 5, 1-17.
[25] Mena, C.F., Barbieri, A.F., Walsh, S.J., Erlien, C.M., Holt, F.L. and Bilsborrow, R.E. (2006) Pressure on the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve: Development and Land Use/Cover Change in the Norther Ecuadorian Amazon. World Development, 34, 1831-1849.
[26] Godoy, R., O’Neill, K., Groff, S., Kostishack, P., Cubas, A., Demmer, J., Mcsweeney, K. and Overman, J. (1997) Household Determinants of Deforestation by Amerindians in Honduras. World Development, 25, 977-987.
[27] Xu, D., Zhang, J., Rasul, G., Liu, S., Xie, F., Cao, M. and Liu, E. (2015) Household Livelihood Strategies and Dependence on Agriculture in the Mountainous Settlements in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Sustainability, 7, 4850-4869.
[28] Mekdaschi, S.R., Hauert, C. and Gurtner, M. (2011) Sustainable Land Management in Practice: Guidelines and Best Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa. Field Application. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT), Rome, Bern.
[29] Carry, D. (2007) Farm Households and Land Use in a Core Conservation Zone of the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala. Human Ecology, 36, 231-248.
[30] Taruvinga, A. and Mushunje, A. (2010) Socio-Economic Factors That Influence Households: Participation in Wetland Cultivation: A Binary Logistic Regression of Wetland Cultivators and Noncultivators. The Joint 3rd African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) and 48th Agricultural Economists Association of South Africa (AEASA), Cape Town, 19-23 September 2010.
[31] Pender, J., Nkonya, E. and Jagger, P. (2004) Strategies to Increase Agricultural Productivity and Reduce Land Degradation: Evidence from Uganda. Agricultural Economics, 31, 181-195.
[32] Sellers, S. (2017) Family Planning and Deforestation: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Environmental Dimensions of Fertility Decision Making. Population & Environment, 38, 1-24.
[33] Romero, M. and De Groot, T. (2008) Farmers Investing in Sustainable Land Use at a Tropical Forest Fringe, the Philippines. In: Rob, B. and Arjan, R., Eds., Economics of Poverty, Environment and Natural Resource Use, Springer Science and Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, 157-184.
[34] Dannenberg, P. and Kuemmerle, T. (2010) Farm Size and Land Use Pattern Changes in Postsocialist Poland. The Professional Geographer, 62, 197-210.
[35] Yamano, T. and Kijima, Y. (2010) The Associations of Soil Fertility and Market Access with Household Income: Evidence from Rural Uganda. Food Policy, 35, 51-59.
[36] Tittonell, P., Muriuki, A., Shepherd, K., Mugendi, D., Kaizzi, K., Okeyo, J., Verchot, L., Coe, R. and Vanlauwe, B. (2010) The Diversity of Rural Livelihoods and Their Influence on Soil Fertility in Agricultural Systems of East Africa—A Typology of Smallholder Farms. Agricultural Systems, 103, 83-97.
[37] Ezeaku, I. and Alaci, D. (2008) Analytical Situations of Land Degradation and Sustainable Management Strategies in Africa. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences, 4, 42-52.
[38] Kakuru, W., Turyahabwe, N. and Mugisha, J. (2013) Total Economic Value of Wetlands Products and Services in Uganda. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, Article ID: 192656.
[39] Swallow, B.M., Sang, K.J., Nyabenge, M., Bundotich, K., Duraiappah, D.K.A. and B.T., Y. (2009) Tradeoffs, Synergies and Traps among Ecosystem Services in the Lake Victoria Basin of East Africa. Environmental Science and Policy, 12, 504-519.
[40] Turyahabwe, N., Kakuru, W., Tweheyo, M. and Tumusiime, D. (2013) Contribution of Wetland Resources to Household Food Security in Uganda. Agriculture & Food Security, 2, 1-12.
[41] NEMA (2004) State of Environment Report 2004. National Environment Management Authority, Kampala.
[42] FAO (2008) Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Scoping Agriculture-Wetland Interactions. Towards a Sustainable Multiple-Response Strategy.
[43] Dale, V. and Polasky, S. (2007) Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services. Ecological Economics, 64, 286-296.
[44] Hartter, J. and Ryan, J. (2010) Top-Down or Bottom-Up? Decentralization, Natural Resource Management, and Usufruct Rights in the Forests and Wetlands of Western Uganda. Land Use Policy, 27, 815-826.
[45] Kibwage, J., Onyango, P. and Bakamwesiga, H. (2008) Local Institutions for Sustaining Wetland Resources and Community Livelihoods in the Lake Victoria Basin. African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2, 97-106.
[46] Turner, R., Van den Bergh, J., Soderqvist, T., Barendregt, A., Van der Straaten, J., Maltby, E. and Van Lerland, E. (2000) The Values of Wetlands: Landscape and Institutional Perspectives, Ecological-Economic Analysis of Wetlands: Scientific Integration for Management and Policy. Ecological Economics, 35, 7-23.
[47] WRI (2009) Mapping a Better Future: How Spatial Analysis Can Benefit Wetlands and Reduce Poverty in Uganda. Washington DC.
[48] Adhikari, S., Bajracharaya, R. and Sitaula, B. (2009) A Review of Carbon Dynamics and Sequestration in Wetlands. Journal of Wetlands Ecology, 2, 42-46.
[49] Mitsch, W.J., Bernal, B., Nahlik, A.M., Mander, U., Zhang, L., Anderson, C.J. and Jorgensen, S.E. (2012) Wetlands, Carbon, and Climate Change. Landscape Ecology, 28, 583-597.
[50] National Environment Management Authority (2011) Wetlands for Forests, World Wetlands Day of 2nd February 2011. National Environment Management Authority, Kampala.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.