Constructing a Creative Agricultural Complex Base on the Law for Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105287   PDF   HTML   XML   206 Downloads   391 Views  

Abstract

In a broad sense, agriculture is part of the creative culture industry. Through the concept of verification of the Creative Culture Industry Development Law, this study discusses the core issues that must be paid attention to when promoting the agricultural cultural and creative industries to achieve the lack of economic benefits. This study reviews the definition of cultural and creative industries and the focus of Taiwan’s original culture industry development law and proposes a new concept of an agricultural complex. The concept of an agricultural complex also echoes the urban complex and the tourism complex. Finally, this study proposes conclusions and recommendations for the creative agriculture complex from the two directions of agricultural resource and technology integration.

Share and Cite:

Hung, T. , Hsu, C. and Chen, Y. (2019) Constructing a Creative Agricultural Complex Base on the Law for Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan. Open Access Library Journal, 6, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1105287.

1. Introduction

Agriculture is part of the creative culture industry. When promoting the cultural and creative industries, we must introduce the so-called core issues, so as not to cause only the appearance of the table, challenging to play, the gap in output value, lack of economic benefits [1] . Therefore, if defined in a broad sense, that is, “the whole picture of human life” defined by anthropology, or “culture is life”, then all industries must be included in the scope of the cultural industry, but such definition is still not clear enough complete.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization divides the cultural and creative industries into three categories: cultural products, cultural services, and intellectual property rights. Therefore, the definitions of cultural and creative industries in different countries, as well as the types and contents of industries developed, are slightly different from each other, but the concepts of cultural and creative industries are similar in general, and they are not included in the scope [2] . Therefore, everything comes from the accumulation of culture or creativity, and through the formation and use of intellectual property, it has an industry that creates economic value and employment opportunities and enhances the overall life and environment. It is called the cultural and creative industry.

From the perspective of agricultural products, John Howkin, the father of the creative economy, points out that the industries within the scope of intellectual property law protection are creative industries. He believes that agriculture is primarily dependent on intellectual property and its products are creative products [3] . The application and integration of cultural and creative industries in agriculture have made creative agriculture. This study is based on the law for the development of the cultural and creative industries in Taiwan, trying to explore a new concept of creative agriculture complex. From the two directions of resource and technology integration, this paper puts forward the conclusions and recommendations of this research for creative agriculture complex.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Definition of Cultural and Creative Industries

The final product of the cultural industry is the domain of “text”, that is, it is pluralistic and can be interpreted or interpreted by anyone [4] . Just as people will design uniforms related to their occupations because of their different occupations, they will design visual and visual images related to the industry due to different formats, and they will also arrange live venues due to different functions. The goal and purpose are not just for a specific meaning, but for appealing to its industrial value and function [5] .

Any food, clothing, housing, transportation, education, music, and other industries in our life are possessed some of the characteristics of the cultural industry, only because of the unknown and different phenomenon of the cultural industry boundary [6] . As a result, countries around the world have different names for cultural industries, such as “creative industries,” “cultural and creative industries,” “cultural industries,” and “cultures.” Because of the different policies, nationalities and development strategies of different countries, they all have their positioning and name strategies. Therefore, there is no specific standard model, and some have different goals and application strategies [7] .

However, if the cultural industry is defined as “an industry that uses culture to create wealth,” it will appear narrow and discomfort, because the cultural industry initially relies on culture to create economic value, but the use of culture to create economic value is not necessarily the only culture. Industry alone, other industries can also create this [8] . The Ministry of Culture of China interprets the cultural industry as an industry that originates from the accumulation of culture or creativity and has intellectual property potential and creates wealth to promote the overall living environment [9] .

Besides, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, creativity is an essential part of cultural orientation so that it can be expressed in different forms. The general understanding of the cultural industry, most of the limitations are those intangible or cultural-based projects and content, and through the creation, production and commercial integration of the industry [10] . Therefore, the cultural and creative industries can also be regarded as creative industries, oriented industries, content industries, living industries, and art industries, because the cultural and creative industries are involved in a wide range. From these foundations can also be extended to architecture, landscape, vision, performance, art, sports, education, music, advertising, tourism, products, and activities.

2.2. The Core Concept of the Law the Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Taiwan

Taiwan’s Law for the Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries was established in 2010 by the Ministry of Culture. This Act is enacted to foster the development of Cultural and Creative Industries, to establish a social environment with abundant culture and creativity, to utilize the technology and create researches and developments, to strengthen talent cultivation of the Cultural and Creative Industries, and to actively exploit the domestic and overseas market [11] . The development of Cultural and Creative Industries shall proceed according to the provisions in this Act. If there exist more favorable provisions than the content of this Act, the said provisions shall apply.

To promote the Cultural and Creative Industries, the Government shall strengthen artistic creation and cultural preservation, reinforce the combination of culture and technology, emphasize on a balanced development between cities, counties and regions, value local characteristics, elevate the citizens’ capacity for cultural appreciation, and enhance the popularity of cultural art so to comply with the international trends [12] . The “Cultural and Creative Industries” referred to in this Act means the following industries that originate from creativity or accumulation of culture which through the formation and application of intellectual properties, possess potential capacities to create wealth and job opportunities, enhance the citizens “capacity for arts, and elevate the citizens” living environment [13] .

To promote the development of the cultural and creative industry, the Government shall contribute to establishing the Cultural and Creative Industry Development and Research Institute. The establishment rule thereof is to be stipulated otherwise. The Government shall endeavor to develop Cultural and Creative Industries, and secure the relevant and necessary funds [14] . To nurture cultural and creative enterprise talents, the Government shall fully exploit and exercise the human resource of cultural creativities, integrate varieties of teaching and research resource, and encourage Cultural and Creative Industries to proceed with cooperation on research and talent cultivation between industries, government, and academia. The Government may assist local governments, colleges, and Cultural and Creative Enterprises to enrich cultural and creative talents, encourage the establishment of an appropriate developmental facility in respect of Cultural and Creative Industries, establish related courses, or proceed with original experiments, creations, exhibitions, and performances [15] . Based on Taiwan’s Law for the Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries, this study will propose a new concept of creative agriculture complex.

3. Analysis of Creative Agriculture from the Creative Culture Laws

The cultural industry refers to “companies that derive their development momentum from individual creativity, technology, and talent, as well as those that create pre-existing wealth and employment opportunities through the development of intellectual property rights”. The cultural and creative industries are closely related to the cultural industry and the creative industry season, and they are different from each other. It also emphasizes cultural and creative. To put it simply, it is to integrate the originality and variability of knowledge into a culture with rich connotations, so that it can be combined with economic activities to exert the functions of the industry. Therefore, cultural creativity is a process in which knowledge and intelligence evolve into specific wealth. It has three characteristics: first, the use of some form of individual “creative” in the production process; second, the symbolic production of unique creativity and The consumption of physical entities; third, the marketing of products has intellectual property rights.

The original point of thinking about the creative agriculture complex is the road to development in rural Taiwan. A significant problem in Taiwanese society is urban and rural issues. The gap between urban and rural areas is not only a material gap but also a cultural gap. The primary way to resolve the gap is to develop the economy, and the main path to economic development is driven by industry. Then, in rural society, what kind of industry can and needs to be developed? In a particular category, after the township industrial model in the era of rapid industrialization, there are not many industrial choices that can be developed in rural areas. Only the two main choices of modern agriculture and tourism are more common. Here, we do not deny that there are other industrial conditions with characteristics in a few places, such as technology, processing industry, trade, etc., but we are discussing a universal industry here. The added value brought about by agricultural development is limited and is not sufficient to cover the cost of rural modernization. The leading consumer of tourism is urban people, and its added value is significant. Therefore, tourism can be used as a driving industry choice to drive the development of rural social economy and to some extent bridge the gap between urban and rural areas.

In this process, we must focus on solving rural problems with urban factors. The solution to the material level gap is to create public consumption for urban people. An effective way to solve cultural differences is urban-rural interaction. The most direct way to interact with urban and rural areas is to “mix” urban and rural people in space and intertwine themselves in behavior. We understand that the “urbanization of people” is not to go upstairs or to be a city person, nor to solve the problem of identity treatment is urban people, culture can be bridged, is the urbanization of people. Then, the most effective way is the urban-rural interaction.

The beautiful towns of Europe, America, and Japan have experienced a hundred years of growth. Taiwan's rural modernization, under the current material and the rural areas themselves develop cultural reality gap [16] . To present a good development situation, there are significant limitations. Because it can’t automatically have good development factors such as talents, funds, and organizational models, we have seen a lot of rural societies in the process of disorder, powerlessness, and decentralization. From our current environment, we advocate trying to go through this process with an appropriate methodology. In the current environment, it takes ten or eight years or more to give enterprises and financial institutions the opportunity to participate, and to unite the government and villagers’ organizations to participate in the development of rural economic and social development in the form of overall planning, development, and operation [17] .

The creative agriculture complex and the agricultural tourism complex planning are useful supplements to the urban-rural integrated planning system. It is one of the new urbanization development paths and an important starting point. It is the central planning and designs of agricultural and rural development and urban-rural integration.

4. Construction of Creative Agriculture Complex

The creative agriculture complex is a concept corresponding to the urban complex and the tourism complex. It creates a harmonious and co-prosperous and sustainable development between man and nature, through the organic combination of production, life, ecology and agriculture, processing industry and service industry [18] . Coexist with associations to achieve complex functions such as ecological agriculture, leisure tourism, and rural residence. Since the implementation of the China Tourism Law in 2013, after years of development, China’s leisure agriculture has formed many leisure agricultural brands with local characteristics and certain cultural influences [19] . Many related raw materials come from agricultural products, which promote the development of local leisure agriculture [20] .

First of all, the planning of the creative agriculture complex and the agricultural tourism complex, from the perspective of planning content, emphasizes the development of modern agricultural industry, is based on the joint construction of agricultural science and technology and agricultural, industrial chain, promotes the integration and development of the first, second and third generations; It is one of the main ways to focus on the development of ecological civilization; it is to promote the income of farmers in suburban areas and contiguous rural areas, and it is the primary way to strengthen the collective economy. Form urban and rural planning, integration and linkage development, for example, in the planning and design of urban and rural-urban and rural planning and design―the hospital emphasizes the rational construction of the agricultural industry development system, highlights the agricultural multi-functional innovation operation path, promotes the development of the internal production industry cluster, promotes rural characteristics The town’s overall planning.

Secondly, the focus of the creative agriculture complex planning: more large emphasis on leading agricultural industry development, ecological environment construction, rural agricultural community construction and rural collective economy, villagers’ joint participation and employment income increase integration planning. The focus of the agricultural tourism complex planning: more emphasis on the overlay of the agricultural industry, the continuous construction of agricultural tourism, the emphasis on the innovation and operation of multi-functional agricultural development, and the critical development mode of enhancing the added value of the agricultural industry. Urban and rural planning should be based on the market. The integration of regional resources and development will provide urban and rural residents with the main functions of leisure tourism education.

Therefore, the planning of the creative agriculture complex and the agricultural tourism complex should coordinate urban and rural development in the planning and preparation, and innovate the urban and rural integration operation path. It should strengthen the construction of agriculture and industrial systems, and enhance the kinetic energy of agricultural science and technology leading and sustainable development.

It is an idyllic style for romantic living consumption in the fast urbanization wave. The value lies in the comprehensive, which makes agriculture become a tourism and low consumption value so that the tourism industry is pinned on the consumption of the countryside, and the countryside becomes a human being. Based on Taiwan’s “Cultural and Creative Industry Development Law,” this study first proposed “Creative Agriculture Complex,” which is a new sustainable model, new form and rural integration. Based on the Foundation on Taiwan’s Law for the Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries, this study is the first to propose a “creative agriculture complex,” which is a sustainable new model, a new format, and a rural integration. The reform of the side structure must converge with the development of the first, second and third industries.

The creative agriculture complex integrates the three industries of modern agriculture, leisure tourism, and residential community into a forward-looking, comprehensive development model. Agriculture should build a modern characteristic agricultural production industry network, leisure agriculture and CSA (community support agriculture): the leisure tourism industry should create a Wenlu holiday product that conforms to the pastoral landscape, and consider the function of the scenic area, the model, space, and the integration. The content of the tropical characteristic cultural life; the property industry should be built according to the village texture with several business plans, and it is necessary to attach management and service functions to create a new community. The creative agriculture complex will focus on agricultural landscape, agricultural and sideline products, farming activities, agricultural technology, and rural life. In combination with the strong demand of urban residents for healthy living and children's education, cultural creativity is combined with agricultural production, agricultural product processing, and packaging, leisure, and entertainment, etc., and the multiplier effect of industrial value is promoted by culture. The centralized planning, unified construction, unified management, and decentralized management principles in the theory of seasonal purchasing of tourism and tourism complexes are also applicable to the creative agriculture complex. The construction of creative agriculture complex conforms to the market demand and leisure industry of Hainan to create a global tourism demonstrator. The construction of the creative agriculture complex not only satisfies the market demand of Taiwan’s leisure industry, but also creates a development trend of global tourism demonstration sites.

5. Conclusions and Discussion

Based on Taiwan’s Law for the Development of the Cultural and Creative Industries, a pilot project for the construction of a creative agricultural complex can be constructed. The overall tourism concept of the creative agriculture complex originates from life and culture. If rural township construction has its characteristics, it must focus on excavating Taiwan’s local culture, history and culture, traditional culture, and fashion culture. Culture is the soul of tourism. Taiwan constructs a global tourism creative agriculture complex cultural and creative industry, which can explore the integration path of the two from the perspective of resources and technology.

From the perspective of the integration of agricultural resources, culture and creativity are the primary resources for the construction of creative agriculture complex. The tropical countryside has many cultural relics and cultural landscapes, and the famous ancient culture and revolutionary culture with Taiwan characteristics, such as commemorating the ancestral home of celebrities. There are also historical sites such as historical monuments in Taiwan. The cultural and creative industries are closely related to ethnic folklore, historic sites, and architectural blocks. They have a natural connection with history. The “tropical agricultural history” is the primary source of cultural and creative industries. These are the primary resources for the development of creative agriculture complex industry. The fusion of objects, the resulting rural tourism or pastoral creativity is an essential part of leisure tourists’ meaning consumption and material consumption. At the same time, these cultural and creative elements and cultural and creative industries have increased their popularity and influence because of the participation of tourism. The output value and income play a role in further promoting the protection and development of cultural resources.

From the perspective of technology integration, elements such as creativity and information technology are the core means for the innovation of tourism development in the rural tourism complex. The combination of technical means and modern agriculture can create a modern characteristic agricultural production industrial park, urban leisure agriculture, community support agriculture, and other micro-agricultural landscapes; the homestay industry that integrates technical means will be able to create a traditional look and feel with the village texture. Modern, convenient and comfortable living conditions, with intelligent management and service functions attached; technical resources integrated into tourism product design, research and development, production, marketing, sales, and after-sales services will change product types, production processes, and operation methods. Realize industrial transformation and upgrading, and promote the diversified development of the industry.

The development of “creative agriculture complex” is a process. It is necessary to form a “creative agricultural complex” with clear internal functional divisions, general improvement of infrastructure, effective management of the rural ecological environment, and inheritance of rural civilizations from generation to generation, usually taking years or even decades. This requires planning first and more financial support. The development model of “creative agriculture complex” has also provided a broader stage for the development of rural financial institutions.

Financial support “creative agriculture complex”, on the one hand, can gradually expand the scale and coverage of rural financial services according to the needs of the new planning and complex financial services, accelerate the innovation of rural financial service models, comprehensively improve the level of rural financial services, and accelerate the establishment of A modern rural financial system with multiple levels, wide coverage, sustainability, moderate competition, and risk control. At the same time, we will promote the establishment of specialized institutions for banking institutions to serve the rural revitalization strategy, concentrate specialized manpower and resources, and improve the professionalism of the “three rural” business; and play the role of the government-supported financing guarantee institution to improve the “three”. The credit information service of the “Agriculture” enterprise, through the cooperation of financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies, establishes a risk-sharing and compensation mechanism for secured loans; in terms of payment and settlement, it develops mobile payment and online payment suitable for rural “scattered” distribution characteristics. Wait. You can also use the Internet, cloud computing, big data, and other technical means to optimize the business approval process and improve the efficiency of credit delivery.

On the other hand, financial support can start from the “point” of the “creative agriculture complex.” For example, some rural areas are suitable for the development of modern fisheries, and financial support can begin with the construction of the “points” of the “creative agriculture complex”―the fishing museum or the fishing culture hall. The fishery can not only develop itself into an elaborate integrating fishing culture display, sales, catering, etc., allowing visitors to come to the fishing hall to learn the knowledge of fishing, to watch the fish pond landscape, to buy fishing gear, and to bring back the fish that they like to eat. Products, directly purchase fresh fish on-site processing, can also extend up and down, stimulating the development of upstream and downstream industries. By supporting the fishing halls, finance can promote the development of local fisheries and benefit both upstream and downstream enterprises such as fish farmers, fish feed manufacturers and deep processing of fish products.

Similarly, some places are suitable for flower planting. Finance can first support the sightseeing spot and then support the supporting facilities such as health care, conferences, adult development training, etc., forming a combination of flower display, viewing, sales, leisure, and dining. Re-recognize and discover rural values through rural revitalization.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for your valuable connects and suggestions, and the corresponding author Y. C. Chen can be contacted at: 1977yichen@gmail.com.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

References

[1] Chow, W. and Shieh, M.-D. (2018) A Study of the Cultural and Creative Product Design of Phalaenopsis in Taiwan. Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics, 21, 389-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720502.2017.1420568
[2] Jelincic, D.A. and Vukic, F. (2015) Creative Industries as Carriers of Urban Identity and Drivers of Development: From Directional towards Participative Branding. Annales: Series Historia et Sociologia, 25, 527-536.
[3] Crane, T.A. (2014) Bringing Science and Technology Studies into Agricultural Anthropology: Technology Development as Cultural Encounter between Farmers and Researchers. Culture, Agriculture, Food & Environment, 36, 45-55.
https://doi.org/10.1111/cuag.12028
[4] Boix, D.R. and Soler, M.V. (2017) Creative Service Industries and Regional Productivity. Papers in Regional Science, 96, 261-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12187
[5] Henshall, J.C. (2012) Delta Blues at the Crossroads: Cultural Tourism and the Economic Revitalization of Downtown Clarksdale, Mississippi. Thesis Eleven, 109, 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0725513612444559
[6] Comunian, R., Faggian, A. and Jewell, S. (2014) Embedding Arts and Humanities in the Creative Economy: The Role of Graduates in the UK. Environment & Planning C: Government & Policy, 21, 426-450. https://doi.org/10.1068/c11153r
[7] Gong, H. and Hassink, R. (2017) Exploring the Clustering of Creative Industries. European Planning Studies, 25, 583-600.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2017.1289154
[8] Kong, L. (2014) From Cultural Industries to Creative Industries and Back? Towards Clarifying Theory and rethinking Policy. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 15, 593-607.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14649373.2014.977555
[9] Anderson, A.R., Wallace, C. and Townsend, L. (2016) Great Expectations or Small Country Living? Enabling Small Rural Creative Businesses with ICT. Sociologia Ruralis, 56, 450-468. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12104
[10] Hauge, E.S., Pinheiro, R.M. and Zyzak, B. (2018) Knowledge Bases and Regional Development: Collaborations between Higher Education and Cultural Creative Industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 24, 485-503.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2016.1218858
[11] Kianicka, S., Knab, L. and Buchecker, M. (2010) Maiensass-Swiss Alpine Summer Farms—An Element of Cultural Heritage between Conservation and Further Development: A Qualitative Case Study. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16, 486-507. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2010.505045
[12] Sheail, J. (2007) “One and the Same Historic Landscape”: A Physical/Cultural Perspective. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 13, 321-334.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13527250701350868
[13] Tainter, J.A. (2011) Resources and Cultural Complexity: Implications for Sustainability. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30, 24-34.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2011.553539
[14] Colombo, F. (2018) Reviewing the Cultural Industry: From Creative Industries to Digital Platforms. Com-munication & Society, 31, 135-146.
[15] Leung, L. (2016) The Creative Other: Mar-ginalization of and from the Creative Industries. Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society, 46, 200-211.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10632921.2016.1211050
[16] Miao, R., Liu, T. and Li, M. (2013) The Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Creative Agriculture in Miyun. Asian Agricultural Research, 5, 53-56.
[17] Taipale, S. (2015) Theorizing Cultural Work: Labour, Continuity and Change in the Cultural and Creative Industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 21, 360-362. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2014.958479
[18] Cho, R.L.T., Liu, J.S. and Ho, M.H.-C. (2018) What Are the Concerns? Looking Back on 15 Years of Research in Cul-tural and Creative Industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 24, 25-44.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2015.1128417
[19] Lan, M.-Y. and Hung, T.-A. (2019) The Impact of Leisure Agriculture on Package Group Tours: A China’s New Tourism Laws Perspective. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5141. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105141
[20] Liu, Y.-L., Ho, L.-M. and Liu, F.Y. (2018) The Brand Management Evaluation Indicators Model of Agri-Tourism Farms: A Core Competence Perspective. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4827. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104827

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.