High Pressure Water-Jet Technology for the Surface Treatment of Al-Si Alloys and Repercussion on Tribological Properties
Md. Aminul Islam, Zoheir Farhat, Jonathon Bonnell
DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2011.13017   PDF   HTML     6,149 Downloads   11,860 Views   Citations


Recent developments in high pressure water-jet technology have brought the process to the forefront as a means of surface treatment. Water jet technology offers cleaning, cutting, processing as well as potential refinement of surface properties. By adapting the process parameters the surface characteristics can be changed while the profile remains the same. In the present study, water-jet technology was used for the surface treatment of Al-Si alloy to investigate its effect on tribological properties. Dry sliding wear behavior was investigated against AISI 52100 bearing steel ball using a reciprocating ball-on-flat configuration. Optical microscopy examination reveals that ploughing of grains, transgranular and intergranular propagation of cracks; are the mechanisms by which material is removed during water jet treatment. While, on the other hand, SEM observation of the wear track reveals that plastic deformation and delamination are the dominant wear mechanism during the wear process. Water jet treatment was compared to hot isostatic pressing in terms of its effects on wear resistance and surface porosity of Al-Si alloy. It was found that, hot isostatic pressing reduces the total amount of porosity at the expanse of hardness while water jet treatment produces a compressed surface having higher hardness and compressive residual stress, which ultimately increases wear resistance.

Share and Cite:

M. Islam, Z. Farhat and J. Bonnell, "High Pressure Water-Jet Technology for the Surface Treatment of Al-Si Alloys and Repercussion on Tribological Properties," Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 112-120. doi: 10.4236/jsemat.2011.13017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. A. Hofacker, “The Large Aircraft Robotic Paint Strip-ping System,” Proc. 7th American Water Jet Conference,” Water Jet Technology Association, St Louis, 1993, pp. 613-628.
[2] M. Wen, L. Zhang, H. Han, Y. Dong, Z. Che, “Water- Jet-Technology and Its Application for Preventing Pump- Cavitation,” Renewable Energy Resources, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2010, pp. 145-147.
[3] B. Wood, “A Water-Cooled, Hydraulically Positioned 20,000 Psi Lance for Waterblasting Inside a Hot Klin,” Jetting Technology, Mechanical Engineering Publication Limited, London, 1996, pp. 379-392.
[4] A. W. Momber and A. G. Nielsen, “Pipeline Rehabilitation by Water Jetting,” Material Evaluation, Vol. 37, 1998, pp. 97-101.
[5] R. Yasui, A. Yanari and F. M. Carletti, “The Removal of Excessive Resin from Semiconductor Leadframes with Spot-Shot Waterjets,” Proceeding 7th American Water Jet Conference, Water Jet Technology Assoiation, St Louis, 1993, pp. 813-827.
[6] M. Raudensky, J. Horsky and L. Telecky, “Thermal and Mechanical Effect of High-Pressure Spraying of Hot Surfaces-Descaling,” Proceeding 3rd International Met-allurgic Conference, Continental Casting Dillets, Trinec, 1999, pp. 217-221.
[7] A. W. Momber and R. Kovacevic, “Principals of Abrasive Water Jet Machining.” Springer-Verlag Ltd., London, 1998.
[8] G. Anirban, M. Ronald and R. Balachandar, “An Experi-mental and Numerical Study of Water Jet Cleaning Processes,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 211, No. 4, 2011, pp. 610-618. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.11.017
[9] A. W. Momber, “Water Jet Applications in Construction Engineering,” A A Balkema, Rotterdam, 1998.
[10] S. Srinivas and N. Ramesh, “An Analytical Model for Predicting Depth of Cut in Abrasive Water Jet Cutting of Ductile Materials Considering the Deflection of Jet in Lateral Direction,” International Journal of Abrasive Technology Vol. 2, No. 3, 2009, pp. 259-278. doi:10.1504/IJAT.2009.024398
[11] H. Orbanic and M. Junkara, “Analysis of Striation For-mation Mechanism in Abrasive Water Jet Cutting,” Wear Vol. 265, No. 5-6, 2008, pp. 821-830. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2008.01.018
[12] H. Torabiana, J. P. Pathaka and S. N. Tiwaria, “Wear Characteristics of Al-Si Alloys,” Wear, Vol. 172, 1994, pp. 49-58.
[13] M. Elmadagli, T. Perry and A. T. Alpas, “A Parametric Study of the Relationship between Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Al-Si Alloys,” Wear, Vol. 262, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 79-92. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2006.03.043
[14] N. Saka, A. M. Eleiche and N. P. Suh, “Wear of Metals at High Sliding Speeds,” Wear, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1977, pp. 109-125. doi:10.1016/0043-1648(77)90089-8
[15] T. M. Chandrashekharaiah and S. A. Kori “Effect of Grain Refinement and Modification on the Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Eutectic Al-Si Alloys,” Tribology In-ternational, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2009, pp. 59-65. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2008.05.012
[16] S. Hegde and K. N. Prabhu, “Modi?cation of Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Alloys,” Journal of Material Science, Vol. 43, 2008, pp. 3009-3027. doi:10.1007/s10853-008-2505-5
[17] G. F. Bocchini, “The Influence of Porosity on the Char-acteristics of Sintered Materials,” International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1986, pp. 185-202.
[18] F. Akhlaghi and A. A. Zare-Bidaki, “Influence of Graphite Content on the Dry Sliding and Oil Impregnated Sliding Wear Behavior of Al 2024-Graphite Composites Produced by in Situ Powder Metallurgy Method,” Wear, Vol. 266, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 37-45. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2008.05.013
[19] H. Danninger, G. Jangg, B. Weiss and R. Stickler, “Mi-crostructure and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Iron, Part I: Basic Considerations and Review of Literature,” Powder Metallurgy International, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1993, pp. 111-117.
[20] M. A. Islam and Z. N. Farhat, “Effect of Porosity on Dry Sliding Wear of Al-Si Alloys,” Tribology International, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2011, pp. 498-504. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2010.12.007
[21] D. A. Gerard and D. A.Koss., “Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation: Modeling the Effect of Porosity,” International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1990, pp. 337-343.
[22] Y. Mai, B. Cotterell, S. Q. He and Y. B. Ke, “Handbook of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metallic Structures,” Amsterdam: Elsevier, Vol. 1, 1991, pp. 221-246.
[23] A. Shimamoto, R. Kubota and S. Yang, “Effects of Water Jet Peening and Hardening Treatment on Fatigue Proper-ties of SCr420,” ASME Conference Proceeding, Vol. 3, 2009, pp. 425-432.
[24] K. Hirano, K. Enomoto, M. Mochizuki, M. Hayashi, E. Hayashi and S. Shimizu, “Improvement of Residual Stress on Material Surface by Water Jet Peening,” Translation of the 14th International Conference on Structural Mechanicsin Reactor Technology, Lyon, France, 1997, pp. 17-22.
[25] B. Han and D. Y. Ju, “Compressive Residual Stress In-duced by Water Cavitation Peening: A Finite Element Analyses,” Materials & Design, Vol. 30, No. 8, 2009, pp. 3325-3332. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2008.11.029
[26] “Method for Determination of Density of Compacted or Sintered Powder Metallurgy Products-Standard 42,” Standard Test Methods of Metal Powders and Powder Metallurgy Products, Metal Powder Industries Federation, New Jersey, Princeton, 2002, pp. 59-61.
[27] “Standard Practice for Determining the Inclusion or Sec-ond-Phase Constituent Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards: E 1245-03.
[28] G. K. Williamson and W. H. Hall, “X-ray Line Broaden-ingfromjiled Aluminium and Wolfram,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1953, pp. 22-31. doi:10.1016/0001-6160(53)90006-6
[29] A. L. Patterson, “The Scherrer Formula for X-Ray Particle Size Determination,” Physical Review, Vol. 56, No. 10, 1939, pp. 978-982. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.56.978
[30] “Standard Test Method for Knoop and Vickers Hardness of Materials,” Annual book of ASTM Standards: E 384- 10€2
[31] S. P. Nikanorov, M. P. Volkov, V. N. Gurin, Y. A. Bu-renkov, L. I. Derkachenko, B. K. Kardashev, L. L. Regel and W. R. Wilcox, “Structural and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Alloys Obtained by Fast Cooling of a Levitated Melt,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 390, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 63-69. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2004.07.037
[32] H. G. Jiang, M. Ruhle and E. J. Lavernia, “On the Appli-cability of the X-Ray Diffraction Line Profile Analysis in Extracting Grain Size and Microstrain in Nanocrystalline Materials,” Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1999, pp. 549-559.
[33] G. K. Williamson and W. H. Hall, “X-ray Line Broadening from Filed Aluminium and Wolfram,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1953, pp. 22-31.
[34] M. A. Islam and Z. N. Farhat, “The Influence of Porosity and Hot Isostatic Pressure Treatment on Wear Character-istics of Cast and P/M Aluminum Alloys,” Wear, 2011.
[35] K. Johnson, “Contact Mechanics,” 1st Edition, Cambri- dge University Press, United Kingdom, 1987.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.