A Rapid Technique for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Polymer Coated Controlled Release Fertilizers
Shengsen Wang, Ashok K. Alva, Yuncong Li, Min Zhang
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2011.12005   PDF   HTML     6,838 Downloads   15,391 Views   Citations


Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) are produced with different rates and durations of nutrient release to cater to different crops with wide ranges of nutrient requirements. A rapid technique is needed to verify the label specifications of nutrient release rate and duration. Polymer-coated urea (PCU) (43% nitrogen [N]) and polymer-coated N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) (PC_NPK; 14-14-14) fertilizer products were used in this study. Soil incubation of the above CRF products at 25℃ showed that 63.6% to 70.8% of total N was released over 220 days (d). At 100℃ in water 100% of N release occurred in about 168 to 216 hours (h). Regression equations were developed for cumulative nutrient release as a function of release time separately at 25℃ and 100℃. Using the above regressions, the release duration for a given percent nutrient release at each temperature was calculated. These values were then used to establish a relationship between the release duration at 25℃ as a function of that at 100℃. This relationship is useful to predict the release duration at 25℃ of an unknown CRF product by conducting a rapid release test in water at 100℃. This study demonstrated that a rapid nutrient release test at 100℃ successfully predicted nutrient release rate and duration at 25℃, for polymer coated fertilizers. Therefore, this rapid test can be used to verify the label release rate and duration of most CRF products.

Share and Cite:

S. Wang, A. Alva, Y. Li and M. Zhang, "A Rapid Technique for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Polymer Coated Controlled Release Fertilizers," Open Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2011, pp. 40-44. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2011.12005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. M. Dave and M. H. Mehta, “A Review on Controlled Release of Nitrogen Fertilizers through Polymeric Membrane Devices,” Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1999, pp. 675-711. doi:org/10.1080/03602559909351607
[2] A. Shaviv, “Advances in Controlled Release Fertilizer,” Advanced Agronomy, Vol. 71, 2000, pp. 1-49.
[3] A. J. Patel and G. C. Sharma, “Nitrogen Release Characteristics of controlled Release Fertilizers during a Four month Soil Incubation,” American Society of Horticultural Science, Vol. 102, 1977, pp. 364-367.
[4] T. K. Broschat and K. K. Moore, “Release Rates of Ammonium-Nitrogen, Nitrate-Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron, and Manganese from Seven Controlled Release Fertilizers,” Communications in Soil Science, Vol. 38, pp. 843-850, 2007. doi:org/10.1080/00103620701260946
[5] G. W. Sinclair and N. A. Peppas, “Analysis of Non- fickian Transport in Polymers Using Simplified Exponential Expressions,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1984, pp. 329-332. doi:org/10.1016/S0376-7388(00)83223-8
[6] S. M. Al-Zahrani, “Controlled-Release of Fertilizers: Modeling and Simulation,” International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1998, pp. 1299-1307. doi:org/10.1016/S0020-7225(98)00120-7
[7] J. B. Schwartz, A. P. Simonelli, and W. I. Higuchi, “Drug Release from Wax Matrices: I. Analysis of Data with First-Order Kinetics and with the Diffusion Controlled Model,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1996, pp. 274-278. doi:org/10.1002/jps.2600570206
[8] A. Shaviv, “Plant Response and environment aspects as affected by rate and pattern of nitrogen release from controlled release N fertilizers,” Kluwer Academy, The Netherlands, 1996.
[9] A. Shaviv, S. Raban and E. Zaidel, “Modeling Controlled Nutrient Release from a Population of Polymer Coated Fertilizers: Statistically Based Model for Diffusion Release,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 37, No. 10, 2003, pp. 2257-2261. doi:org/10.1021/es0205277
[10] C. Du, D. Tang, J. Zhou, H. Wang and A. Shaviv, “Prediction of Nitrate Release from Polymer-Coated Fertilizers Using an Artificial Neural Network Model,” Bioprocesses and Biosystems, Vol. 99, No. 4, 2007, pp. 478-486. doi:org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.12.003
[11] D. P. Li, X. C. Xu and H. B. Wang, “Review on the Standards of Slow Controlled Release Fertilizer at Home and Abroad,” Phosphate Compounds and Fertilizer, Vol. 20, 2005, pp. 41-42.
[12] B. Q. Zhao, et al., “Research on development strategies of fertilizer in China,” Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, Vol. 10, 2004, pp. 536-545.
[13] S. E. Allen, L. M. Hunt and G. Terman, “Nitrogen Release from Sulfur-Coated Urea as Affected by Coating Weight, Placement, and Temperature,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 63, No. 4, 1971, pp. 529-533. doi:org/10.2134/agronj1971.00021962006300040004x
[14] J. J. Oertli and O. R. Lunt, “Controlled Release of Fertilizer Materials by Incaspulating Membranes, I; Factors Influencing the Rate of Release,” Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, Vol. 26, No. 6, 1962, pp. 579-583. doi:org/10.2136/sssaj1962.03615995002600060019x
[15] J. H. Chen, Y. P. Cao, H. Xu, Z. G. Fang, and D. R. Mao, “Appraisal of Nitrogen Releasing Characteristics of Organic Polymer Coating Controlled Release Fertilizer,” Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Vol. 8, 2002, pp. 44-47.
[16] M. Zhang, Y. C. Yang, F. P. Song, and Y. X. Shi, “Study and Industrialized Development of Coated Controlled Release Fertilizers,” Journal of Chemical Fertilizer Industry, Vol. 32, 2005, pp. 7-12.
[17] L. C. Medina, J. B. Sartain, and T. A. Obreza, “Estimation of Release Properties of Slow-Release Fertilizer Material,” Horticulture Technology, Vol. 19, pp. 13-15, 2009.
[18] J. J. Dai and X. L. Fan, “Study on the Rapid Method to Predict Longevity of Controlled Release Fertilizer Coated by Water Soluble Resin,” Agricultural Science in China, Vol. 7, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1127-1132. doi:org/10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60155-8
[19] J. J. Dai, X. L. Fan, Y. L. Liang, and L. X. Sun, “Study on Calibration of Standard Regression Curve of Fertilizer Solution Concentration by Conductivity Level,” Phosphate Compound Fertilizers, Vol. 20, pp. 15-17, 2005.
[20] J. J. Dai, X. L. Fan, J. G. Yu, and F. L. Wu, “The Method of Quickly Predicting Longevity of Controlled Release Fertilizer Coated with Thermoset Resin,” Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, Vol. 12, 2006, pp. 431-436.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.