Share This Article:

Pattern of Vaginal Discharge and Associated Demographic Characteristics among Female Patients Seen at a Gynaecology Clinic in Northern Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102231    1,035 Downloads   1,550 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaginal discharge is a common gynecological symptom seen among women provoking anxiety and fear of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study done from November 2008 to March 2013. Records of 969 patients presenting to the gynaecology clinic with symptoms of “vaginal discharge” were retrieved and relevant data on demographics, discharge characteristics and frequency, associated risk factors and symptoms, as well as investigations were retrieved. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software, version 15. Relevant descriptive and bivariate analysis was done. Level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the patients (54.9%) were aged between 21 and 30 years, and the mean age was 26.7 ± 7.9. More than half (53.3%) were of the Hausa ethnic group, Muslims (82.6%) and housewives (51.9%). In terms of colour only 28.2% was characterized; more commonly as whitish (16.9%) or milky (7.7%). About 560 patients (57.8%) had additional associated symptoms. The commonest organism cultured was Candida species in 252 patients (26%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.6%) and Streptococcus species (0.8%). When compared, those with additional symptoms were more likely to present with whitish vaginal discharge, candidiasis and recurrence of symptoms (p < 0.05), than those who had no additional symptoms. Conclusions: Vaginal discharge is a common symptom among women but may not always be pathological. Candidiasis was the commonest infectious cause in this population though the symptom needs to be properly characterized, and investigated when required.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Amina, M. , Zainab, M. , Amina, A. , Augustine, O. and Adebiyi, A. (2015) Pattern of Vaginal Discharge and Associated Demographic Characteristics among Female Patients Seen at a Gynaecology Clinic in Northern Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1102231.

References

[1] da Fonseca, T.M.M.V., Cesar, J.A., Mendoza-Sassi, R.A. and Schmidt, E.B. (2013) Pathological Vaginal Discharge among Pregnant Women: Pattern of Occurrence and Association in a Population-Based Survey. Obstetrics and Gynecology International, 2013, Article ID: 590416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/590416
[2] Al Quaiz, J.M. (2000) Patients with Vaginal Discharge: A Survey in a University Primary Care Clinic in Riyadh City. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 20, 302-306.
[3] Mitchell, H. (2004) Vaginal Discharge—Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment. BMJ, 328, 1306.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7451.1306
[4] Patel, V., Pednekar, S., Weiss, H., Rodrigues, M., Barros, P., Nayak, B., et al. (2005) Why Do Women Complain of Vaginal Discharge? A Population Survey of Infectious and Pyschosocial Risk Factors in a South Asian Community. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34, 853-862.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi072
[5] Rabiu, K.A., Adewunmi, A.A., Akinlusi, F.M. and Akinola, O.I. (2010) Female Reproductive Tract Infections: Understandings and Care Seeking Behaviour among Women of Reproductive Age in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Women’s Health, 10, 8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-10-8
[6] Glasier, A., Metin Gulmezoglu, A., Schmid, G.P., Garcia Moreno, C. and Van Look, P.F.A. (2006) Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Matter of Life and Death. Lancet, 368, 1595-1607.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69478-6
[7] Carr, P.L., Felsenstein, D. and Friedman, R.H. (1998) Evaluation and Management of Vaginitis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13, 335-346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00101.x
[8] Patel, V., Weiss, H.A., Kirkwood, B.R., Pednekar, S., Nevrekar, P., Gupte, S., et al. (2006) Common Genital Complaints in Women: The Contribution of Psychosocial and Infectious Factors in a Population Based Cohort Study in Goa, India. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 1478-1485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl219
[9] Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) (2012) Clinical Guidelines: Management of Vaginal Discharge in Non-Genitourinary Medicine Settings. Clinical Effectiveness Unit.
[10] Yusuf, A., Chowdhury, M., Islam, K.M.S., Eva, E.O., Sharif, A.R., Rahman, K., Talukder, A.R. and Begum, S.A. (2011) Common Microbial Etiology of Abnormal Vaginal Discharge among Sexually Active Women in Dhaka, Bangladesh. South East Asia Journal of Public Health, 1, 35-39.
[11] Nwodioha, S.I., Egah, D.Z., Alao, O.O. and Ihenacho, E. (2010) Risk Factors for Vaginal Candidiasis among Women Attending Primary Healthcare Centers of Hos, Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 2, 110-113.
[12] Chaudhary, V., Kumar, R., Agrawal, V.K., Singh, A., Narula, R. and Sharma, M. (2012) Prevalence and Determinants of Vaginal Discharge among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India. National Journal of Community Medicine, 3, 661-665.
[13] Sivaranjini, R., Jaisankar, T.J., Thappa, D.M., Kumari, R., Chandrasekhar, L., Malathi, M., Parija, S.C. and Habeebullah, S. (2013) Spectrum of Vaginal Discharge in a Tertiary Care Setting. Tropical Parasitology, 3, 135-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5070.122140
[14] Prabha, M.L.S., Sasikala, G. and Bala, S. (2012) Comparison of Syndromic Diagnosis of Reproductive Tract Infections with Laboratory Diagnosis among Rural Married Women in Medak District, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33, 112-115.
[15] Jungmann, E., Johnson, A.M., Ridgway, G., Durrant, K. and Robinson, A.J. (2004) How Useful Are High Vaginal Swabs in General Practice? Results of a Multicentre Study. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 15, 238-239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/095646204773557758
[16] Omole-Ohonsi, A. and Nwokedi, E.E. (2004) Sociodemographic Characteristics and Aetiological Factors of Vaginal Discharge in Pregnancy. Jos Journal of Medicine, 5, 27-30.
[17] Nessa, K., Warris, S.A., Alam, A., Hug, M., Nahar, S., Chawdhury, F.A.H., et al. (2005) Sexually Transmitted Infections among Brothel-Based Sex Workers in Bangladesh: High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Infection. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32, 13-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.olq.0000148298.26228.74
[18] Sobel, J.D., Faro, S., Force, R.W., Foxman, B., Ledger, W.J., Nyirjesy, P.R., et al. (1998) Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Epidemiologic, Diagnostic and Theraputic Considerations. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 178, 203-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9378(98)80001-X
[19] Mohammed-Durosinlorun, A. (2008) Kayan Mata: The Secret World of Aphrodisiacs in Northern Nigeria. Project Submitted to the ARSRC. Sexuality in Africa Magazine and Monographs, 5, 12-13.
[20] Mairiga, A.G., Kullima, A.A. and Kawuwa, M.B. (2010) Social and Health Reasons for Lime Juice Vaginal Douching among Female Sex Workers in Borno State, Nigeria. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 2, 1-4.
[21] Cottrell, B.H. (2010) An Updated Review of Evidence to Discourage Douching. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 35, 103-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMC.0b013e3181cae9da
[22] Israel, E.U., Sylvester, E.G. and Akwaowoh, A.E. (2015) The Use of Antibiotics in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Care Facility. American Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 1, 25-31.
[23] Patnaik, L., Sahu, T. and Sahani, N.C. (2008) Syndromic Diagnosis of RTI/STI among Women of Reproductive Age Group. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 4, 1.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.