Share This Article:

A Study of Socio-Economic Status (SES) Associated with Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in General Population of District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101514    636 Downloads   1,100 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan ranking fifth amongst the twenty two endemic countries. Historically, TB has been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study focuses on the association of SES with prevalence of TB in general population of district Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Government and Private health care centers during 2010-2013 in district Buner, KPK. TB rates were calculated in relation to SES. Result: The data analysis resulted in 1079 positive cases consisting male (n = 445, 41.24%) and female n = (634); 58.8%. The highest occurrence of TB (306/1079: 28.4%) was observed in the group 15 - 45 years followed by the group below 15 years (85/1079:7.9%) in males. The female group in range of 15 - 45 years (251/1079: 23.3%) had maximum TB followed by the group above 45 years (235/1079: 21.8%). The male patients with no education were more in number (152/445: 34.16%) to TB infection as compared to patients with primary (124/445: 27.9%), secondary (111/445: 34.16%) and higher education (58/ 445: 13%). Likewise the highly qualified female patients suffered only 3.5% from TB where as those having no education had maximum infection (49%) followed by primary educated (37.85%) patients. The minimum number of patients (300/1079: 27.8%) suffering from TB were reported in high income family followed by middle (325/1079: 30%) and low income (454/1079: 42%) families. The maximum incidence of TB (320/1079: 28.7%) was found in 2010 followed by 2011 (289/1079: 26.8%), 2012 (268/1079: 24.7%) and 2013 (213/1079: 19.7%) respectively. Conclusions: This result shows that there is deep association between the TB infection and the SES among the public. High infection rates of TB in district Buner may reflect ignorance, no early medical care, poor hygiene, poor nutritional status, economic depressions, lack of proper health facility and knowledge regarding the treatment. Screening for TB (to diagnose latent TB infection), education and good SES remain the most important tools to reduce the risk of TB progression among the general populations in a region.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Khan, J. , Aslam, F. , Khan, B. , Anjum, S. , Rehman, F. , Shams, W. and Ahmad, Z. (2015) A Study of Socio-Economic Status (SES) Associated with Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in General Population of District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101514.

References

[1] Comas, I. and Gagneux, S. (2009) The Past and Future of Tuberculosis Research. PLOS Pathogens, 5, 1-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000600
[2] Kaufmann, S.H. and Parida, S.K. (2007) Changing Funding Patterns in Tuberculosis. Nature Medicine, 13, 299-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0307-299
[3] WHO (2010) WHO Report 2010. Global TB Control. WHO/HTM/TB/2010.7. Geneva.
[4] World Health Organization (2011) WHO Report 2011. Global TB Control. WHO/HTM/TB/2011.16. Geneva.
[5] Naseer, M., Khawaja, A., Pethani, A.S. and Aleem, S. (2013) How Well Can Physicians Manage Tuberculosis? A Public-Private Sector Comparison from Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Health Services Research, 13, 439.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-439
[6] World Health Organization (2009) Global Tuberculosis Control-Epidemiology, Strategy, Financing. WHO Report 2009, Geneva. (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.411).
[7] Hargreaves, J.R., Boccia, D., Evans, C.A., Adato, M., Petticrew, M. and Porter, J.D.H. (2011) The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 654-662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2010.199505
[8] Hill, P.C., Jackson-Sillah, D., Donkor, S.A., Out, J., Adegbola, R.A. and Lienhardt, C. (2006) Risk Factors for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study in the Gambia. BMC Public Health, 6, 156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2010.199505
[9] Boccia, D., Hargreaves, J., Ayles, H., Fielding, K., Simwinga, M. and Godfrey-Faussett, P. (2009) Tuberculosis Infection in Zambia: The Association with Relative Wealth. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 80, 1004-1011.
[10] Baker, M., Das, D., Venugopal, K. and Howden-Chapman, P. (2008) Tuberculosis Associated with Household Crowding in a Developed Country. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 715-721.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2007.063610
[11] Kanara, N., Cain, K.P., Chhum, V., Eng, B., Kim, S., Keo, S., et al. (2009) Association between Distance to HIV Testing Site and Uptake of HIV Testing for Tuberculosis Patients in Cambodia. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13, 226-231.
[12] Somma, D., Thomas, B.E., Karim, F., Kemp, J., Arias, N., Auer, C., et al. (2008) Gender and Socio-Cultural Determinants of TB-Related Stigma in Bangladesh, India, Malawi and Colombia. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 12, 856-866.
[13] Kim, J., Pronyk, P., Barnett, T. and Watts, C. (2008) Exploring the Role of Economic Empowerment in HIV Prevention. AIDS, 22, S57-S71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000341777.78876.40
[14] Wanyeki, I., Olson, S., Brassard, P., Menzies, D., Ross, N., Behr, M. and Schwartzman, K. (2006) Dwellings, Crowding, and Tuberculosis in Montreal. Social Sciences and Medicines, 63, 501-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.12.015
[15] Olson, N.A., Davidow, A.L., Winston, C.A., Chen, M.P., Gazmararian, J.A. and Katz, D.J. (2012) A National Study of Socioeconomic Status and Tuberculosis Rates by Country of Birth, United States, 1996-2005. BMC Public Health, 12, 365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-365
[16] Gupta, D., Das, K., Balamughesh, T., Aggarwal, A.N. and Jindal, S.K. (2004) Role of Socio-Economic Factors in Tuberculosis Prevalence. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 51, 27-31.
[17] Narasimhan, P., Wood, J., MacIntyre, C.R. and Mathai, D. (2013) Risk Factors for Tuberculosis. Pulmonary Medicine,
2013, 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/828939
[18] Lonnroth, K., Williams, B.G., Cegielski, P. and Dye, C. (2010) A Consistent Log-Linear Relationship between Tuberculosis Incidence and Body Mass Index. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 149-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyp308
[19] Rajeshwari, R., Balasubramanian, R., Muniyandi, M., Geetharamani, S., Theresa, X. and Venkatesan, P. (1999) Socioeconomic Impact of Tuberculosis on Patients and Family in India. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 3, 869-877.
[20] Eisenberg, J.N.S., Desai, M.A., Levy, K., Bates, S.J., Liang, S., Naumoff, K. and Scott, J.C. (2007) Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease: A Framework for Tracking Causal Links and Guiding Public Health Research. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, 1216-1223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9806
[21] Dye, C. and Williams, B.G. (2010) The Population Dynamics and Control of Tuberculosis. Science, 328, 856-861.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1185449
[22] Onnroth, K.L., Jaramillo, E., Williams, B.G., Dye, C. and Raviglione, M. (2009) Drivers of Tuberculosis Epidemics: The Role of Risk Factors and Social Determinants. Social Science and Medicine, 68, 2240-2246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.03.041
[23] Muniyandi, M., Ramachandran, R., Gopi P.G., Chandrasekaran, V., Subramani, R., Sadacharam, K., et al. (2007) The Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Different Economic Strata: A Community Survey from South India. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 11, 1042-1045.
[24] Grady, O.J., Maeurer, M., Atun, R., Abubakar, I., Mwaba, P., Bates, M., et al. (2011) Tuberculosis in Prisons: Anatomy of Global Neglect. European Respiratory Journal, 38, 752-754.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00041211
[25] Ayaz, S., Nosheen, T., Khan, S., Khan, S.N., Rubab, L. and Akhtar, M. (2012) Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Still Prevalent in Human in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Life Sciences, 10, 39-41.
[26] Ahmad, T., Ahmad, S., Haroon, M.Z., Khan, A., Salman, S., Khan, N. and Gul, F. (2013) Epidemiological Study of Tuberculosis. European Academic Research, 1, 1854-1860.
[27] Akhtar, N., Khan, B.T., Khan, J., Saeed, K., Khan, S. and Ahmad, Z. (2014). Prevalence of Tuberculosis: Current Status in Manglawar District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. European Academic Research, 1, 5160-5166.
[28] Ahmad, T., Ahmad, K., Naseerullah, Jamal, S.G., Raziullah, Khan, F.M., Khan, S. and Muhammad, R. (2014) A Short Report On Tuberculosis in District Dir (Lower) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Reviews of Progress, 1, 100-105.
[29] Tauseef, A. and Naiz, A. (2013) Tuberculosis Is Still Prevalent in Women of Gul Abad. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 1, 95-100.
[30] Shafqat, M. and Jamail, S. (2012) The Distribution of Tuberculosis Patients and Associated Socio Economic Risk Factors for Transmission of Tuberculosis Disease in Faisalabad City. Asian Journal of Natural and Applied Science, 1, 90-95.
[31] Tauseef, A., Uallah, N. and Kabir, A. (2013) A Descriptive Study of Tuberculosis in Chakdara Town Pakistan. Asian Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 2, 98-103.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.