Share This Article:

Inhibitors and Their Intra-Relationships Influencing the Adoption of Stabilised Earth Construction to Alleviate the Urban Housing Crisis in Zimbabwe

Abstract PP. 1-11
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100899    1,227 Downloads   1,600 Views  

ABSTRACT

Stabilised earth is an alternative building material which is comparatively cheaper than conventional building material in Zimbabwe. However, there are inhibitors which make it unpopular amongst the Zimbabwean construction professionals and general population, though it has a high potential to alleviate the urban housing crisis. This paper aims to identify and highlight these inhibitors and refines them through a series of in-depth interviews. First, a critical literature review method is adopted in this paper to identify the inhibitors influencing the adoption of this building material to address the urban housing crisis and second, the identified inhibitors are refined through the in-depth interview method to determine those influencing the widespread adoption of stabilised earth as a construction material to address urban housing crisis in Zimbabwe.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Zami, M. (2014) Inhibitors and Their Intra-Relationships Influencing the Adoption of Stabilised Earth Construction to Alleviate the Urban Housing Crisis in Zimbabwe. Open Access Library Journal, 1, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1100899.

References

[1] UN HABITAT (2010) The State of African Cities 2010, Governance, Inequality and Urban Land Markets. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.
[2] Srivinas, H. (1999) Sites and Services in Urban Squatters and Slums.
http://www.gdrc.org/uem/squatters/s-and-s.html
[3] Kamete, A.Y. (2006) Revisiting the Urban Housing Crisis in Zimbabwe: Some Forgotten Dimensions? Habitat International, 30, 981-995.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2005.08.002
[4] UN HABITAT (1996) Participation in Shelter Strategies at Community Level in Urban Informal Settlements. UN Habitat.
[5] Adam, E.A. and Agib, A.R.A. (2001) Compressed Stabilised Earth Block Manufacture in Sudan. Printed by Graphoprint for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, Paris, 11.
[6] Mubaiwa, A. (2002) Earth as an Alternative Building Material for Affordable and Comfortable Housing in Zimbabwe: Undergraduate Dissertation. Department of Architecture, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
[7] Zami, M.S. and Lee, A. (2008) Constraints of Earth Construction Zimbabwe—Some Possible Solutions. The 8th International Postgraduate Research Conference, 26-27 June 2008, the Czech Technical University of Prague (CVUT), Czech Republic.
[8] Reddy, B.V. and Mani, M. (2007) Preface: Proceedings, International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007. Interline Publishing, India.
[9] Baiche, B., Osmani, M., Hadjri, K. and Chifunda, C. (2008) Attitude towards Earth Construction in the Developing World: A Case Study from Zambia. CIB W107 Construction in Developing World Countries International Symposium, “Construction in Developing Countries: Procurement, Ethics and Technology”, 16-18 January 2008, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies.
[10] Olotuah, A.O. (2002) Recourse to Earth for Low-Cost Housing in Nigeria. Building and Environment, 37, 123-129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(00)00081-0
[11] Longfoot, B.R. (2003) Earth Building in Botswana: Building Blocks Made from Kgalagadi Sand. University of Technology, Sydney, 7 March 2003.
http://www.dab.uts.edu.au/ebrf/research/botswana_1.html
[12] Tyrell, D. (1996) Prospects for Sustainable Human Development in Zambia: More Choices for Our People. Government of the Republic of Zambia, Lusaka.
[13] Mususa, P.N. and Wood, B. (2004) The Creating of a Sustainable Building Industry in the Housing Sector of Lusaka, Zambia.
[14] CRATerre (2005) Earth Architecture in Uganda: Pilot Project in Bushennyi 2002-2004. CRATerre-EAG Publications, Grenoble, 34.
[15] Morton, T. (2007) Towards the Development of Contemporary Earth Construction in the UK: Drivers and Benefits of Earth Masonry as a Sustainable Mainstream Construction Technique. International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007, 377, 379, 383.
[16] Norton, J. (1997) Building with Earth: A Handbook. 2nd Edition, Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 8.
[17] Chaudhury, S. (2007) Promotion of Earthen Structures in Housing—The Issue of “Acceptability”. International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007, 101-106.
[18] Kateregga, J.K. (1983) Improvement and Use of Earth Construction Products for Low Cost Housing. Appropriate Building Materials for Low Cost Housing, African Region. Proceedings of a Symposium, Nairobi, 1983, Vol. 1.
[19] Blondet, M. and Aguilar, R. (2007) Seismic Protection of Earthen Buildings. International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007, 8.
[20] Jagadish, K.S. (2007) Earth Construction Today: Prospects and Tasks. International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007, 26-27.
[21] Hadjri, K., Osmani, M., Baiche, B. and Chifunda, C. (2007) Attitude towards Earth Building for Zambian Housing Provision. Proceedings of the ICE Institution of Civil Engineers, Engineering Sustainability 160, Issue ES3, 143.
[22] Maini, S. (2005) Earthen Architecture for Sustainable Habitat and Compressed Stabilised Earth Block Technology. Progrmmae of the City on Heritage Lecture on Clay Architecture and Building Techniques by Compressed Earth, High Commission of Ryadh City Development. The Auroville Earth Institute, Auroville Building Centre-INDIA.
[23] Minke, G. (2006) Building with Earth, Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. Birkhauser Publishers for Architecture, Berlin, 18.
[24] Sojkowski, J. (2002) Zambian Vernacular. Online Paper, Architecture Week Website.
[25] Woolley, T. (2004) The Role of Low Impact Building Materials in Sustainable Construction: The Potential for Hemp. Sustainable Building 2004 Africa Conference, Western Cape.
[26] Houben, H., Doat, P., Fontaine, L., Anger, R., Aedo, W.C., Olagnon, C. and Damme, H.V. (2007) Innovative Approaches in Educational Pedagogy for Earthen Architecture. International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007, 38-43.
[27] Woolley, T. and Caleyron, N. (2003) Overcoming the Barriers to the Greater Development and Use of Environmentally Friendly Construction Materials. CIB Sustainable Buildings 2003, Oslo.
[28] Cassell, R.O. (1993) A Traditional Research Paper: Rammed Earth Construction, The Compaction of Successive Layers of Earth between Forms to Build a Wall.
http://webs.ashlandctc.org/jnapora/hum-faculty/syllabi/trad.html
[29] Dobson, S. (2000) Continuity of Tradition: New Earth Building. Terra 2000, Torquay, England.
http://rammedearth.davis.net.au/Terra2000.php
[30] Castells, S.B. and Laperal, E.H. (2007) Spanish Architects Working on Earth. International Symposium on Earthen Structures, Bangalore, 22-24 August 2007, 93-100.
[31] King, B. (1996) Buildings of Earth and Straw: Structural Design for Rammed Earth and Straw-Bale Architecture. Ecological Design Press, California, 5.
[32] Elizabeth, L. (2005) The Natural Building Movement. In: Elizabeth, L. and Adams, C., Eds., Alternative Construction: Contemporary Natural Building Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
[33] Adams, C. (2005) The Realities of Specifying Environmental Building Materials. In: Elizabeth, L. and Adams, C., Eds., Alternative Construction: Contemporary Natural Building Methods, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
[34] Lal, A.K. (1995) Handbook of Low Cost Housing. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 124.
[35] Eisenberg, D. (2005) A New Context for Building Codes and Regulation. In: Elizabeth, L. and Adams, C., Eds., Alternative Construction: Contemporary Natural Building Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
[36] Robinson, S. (1939) “Houses Dirt Cheap.” The Rotarian August 1939: 24. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
[37] Zami, M.S. and Lee, A. (2011) Inhibitors of Adopting Stabilised Earth Construction to Address Urban Low Cost Housing Crisis—An Understanding by Construction Professionals. Journal of Building Appraisal (JBA), 6, 227-240. Palgrave Macmillan Publishers, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 6XS.
http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jba/journal/v6/n3/full/jba201025a.html
[38] Kelly, G. (1970) A Brief Introduction to Personal Construct Theory. In: Bannister, D., Ed., Perspectives in Personal Construct Theory, Academic Press, London, 1-29.
[39] Pidd, M. (1996) Tools for Thinking: Modelling in Management Science. John Wiley, Chichester, 153.
[40] Loosemore, M. (1999) International Construction Management Research: Cultural Sensitivity in Methodological Design. Construction Management and Economics, 17, 553-561.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014461999371178
[41] Chan, P.W. (2004) An Interpretivistic Approach to Understand the Factors that Affect Construction Labour Productivity. PhD Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.
[42] Wallace Foundation Website (2009) Market Research Workbooks and Appendices. Workbook E: In Depth Interview.
http://www.wallacefoundation.org/KnowledgeCenter/KnowledgeTopics/CurrentAreasofFocus/Out-Of-SchoolLearning/Pages/msr.aspx
[43] Boyce, C. and Neale, P. (2006) Conducting In-Depth Interview: A Guide for Designing and Conducting In-Depth Interviews for Evaluation Input. Pathfinder International Tool Series, Monitoring and Evaluation-2.
http://www.pathfind.org/site/DocServer/m_e_tool_series_indepth_interviews.pdf?docID=6301
[44] MLGPWNH (Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing) (2004) New National Housing Standards for High, Medium and Low Density Residential Areas. Circular Number 70, Section 3.1.5, Harare.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.