Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Macadamia Nuts (Macadamia integrifolia) Cultivated in Venezuela

DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.712054   PDF   HTML   XML   5,256 Downloads   6,143 Views   Citations


Macadamia nuts (Macadamia integrifolia) grown in Venezuela have showed an average total fat content of 70%. Oleic acid (18:1) was the main monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (51.3%), followed by palmitoleic acid (16:1, 22.6%). The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), C18:2 and C18:3 represented 5.4%. Thus, MUFAs and PUFAs together constituted more than 80% of the total fatty acids present. Trans-vaccenic acid was also present (3%). As regards to other phytochemical compounds, tocopherols and tocotrienols were not found in the sample, but the presence of squalene was detected.The antioxidant activity (44.2%) of the extract was produced by the phytochemicals present.

Share and Cite:

Rengel, A. , Pérez, E. , Piombo, G. , Ricci, J. , Servent, A. , Tapia, M. , Gibert, O. and Montet, D. (2015) Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Macadamia Nuts (Macadamia integrifolia) Cultivated in Venezuela. Natural Science, 7, 535-547. doi: 10.4236/ns.2015.712054.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Vadivel, V., Kunyanga, C. and Biesalski, H. (2012) Health Benefits of Nut Consumption with Special Reference to Body Weight Control. Nutrition, 28, 1089-1097.
[2] Mc Gee, H. (2007) The Kitchen and the Food. Encyclopedia of the Science and the Culture of the Food. Debate Publishers, 941.
[3] Sabate, J. and Ang, Y. (2009) Nuts and Health Outcomes: New Epidemiologic Evidence. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, 1643S-1648S.
[4] De Lira-García, C., Bacardí-Gascón, M. and Jiménez-Cruz, A. (2012) Effect of the Consumption of Nuts, Seeds and Oils on Biochemical Scoreboards and the Corporal Weight: Systematic Review. Hospitable Nutrition, 27, 4.
[5] Australian Macadamia Society (2010) Industry information & news: Statistics. AMS, Lismore.
[6] Montoya, F. (2012) Commercialization of the Nut of Macadamia for the Strengthening of the Endogenous Development in Villanueva’s Community of the Condition Lara. In: Memories of 1er Venezuelan Congress of Science and Technology and Innovation Locti-PEII 1:238.
[7] Venkatachalam, M. and Sathe, S.K. (2006) Chemical Composition of Selected Edible Nut Seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 4705-4714.
[8] INN (2000) National Institute of Nutrition. Table of Food Composition for Practical Use. Publication N° 5, Series of Blue Notebooks, Caracas, 74.
[9] Kris-Etherton, P., Yu-Poth, S., Sabate, J., Ratcliffe, H., Zhao, G. and Etherton, T. (1999) Nuts and Their Bioactive Constituents: Effects on Serum Lipids and Other Factors That Affect Disease Risk. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 504S-511S.
[10] Maguire, L., O’Sullivan, S., Galvin, K., O’Connor, T. and O’Brien, N. (2004) Fatty Acid Profile, Tocopherol, Squalene and Phytosterol Content of Walnuts, Almonds, Peanuts, Hazelnuts and the Macadamia Nut. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 55, 171-178.
[11] Latimer Jr., G., Ed. (2012) Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International. 19th Edition, AOAC.
[12] Canning, S., Fazio, P., Fisher, D., Gutman, E., Hsia, C., Kauffma, S., Kramer, J., Lane, M., Leinweber, C. and McGee, P., ASTM (1991) Methods of the American Society for Testing and Material, Method D 369, D 445 and D 801; 168-173, 1-4, 134-136.
[13] Cocks, L. and Van Rede, C. (1997) Laboratory Handbook for Oil and Fat Analysis. Academic Press, London/New York, 30-37.
[14] AOCS (1996) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society. 5th Edition, Champaign.
[15] Singhal, R. and Kulkarni, P. (1990) Effect of Puffing on Oil Characteristics of Amaranth (Rajgeera) Seeds. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 67, 952-954.
[16] French Norm ISO 5509 (1977) Oily Bodies of Animal and Vegetable Origin, Preparation of Methylic of Oily Acids (index of classification: T60-233 of May 23, 1997).
[17] ISO 5508 (2000) Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils—Analysis by Gas Chromatography of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
[18] Tuckey, R. and Stevenson, P. (1985) Purification and Analysis of Phospholipids in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Fraction of Bovine Corpus Luteum, and Properties of Cytochrome P-450scc Incorporated into Vesicles Prepared from These Phospholipids. European Journal of Biochemistry, 148, 379-384.
[19] ISO-FDIS 9936 (1997) Oils and Fats of Animal and Vegetable Origin. Determination of the Content of Tocoferol and Tocotrienol by Means of Chromatography It Liquidates of High Resolution. Final Project of International Norm.
[20] Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. and Berset, C. (1995) Use of a Free Radical Method to Evaluate Antioxidant Activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28, 25-30.
[21] Amaral, J., Casal, S., Pereira, J., Seabra, R. and Oliveira, B. (2003) Determination of Sterol and Fatty Acid Compositions, Oxidative Stability, and Nutritional Value of Six Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars Grown in Portugal. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 7698-7702.
[22] Miraliakbari, H. and Shahidi, F. (2008) Antioxidant Activity of Minor Components of Tree Nut Oils. Food Chemistry, 111, 421-427.
[23] Miraliakbari, H. and Shahidi, F. (2008) Oxidative Stability of Tree Nut Oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 4751-4759.
[24] Chunhieng, T., Goli, T., Piombo, G., Pioch, D., Brochier, J. and Montet, D. (2004) Recent Analysis on the Composition of Brazil Nut Bertholletia excelsa. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 280, 91-98.
[25] Kaijser, A., Dutta, P. and Savage, G. (2000) Oxidative Stability and Lipid Composition of Macadamia Nuts Grown in New Zealand. Food Chemistry, 71, 67-70.
[26] Koaze, H., Ndaka, D., Karanja, P., Ishibashi, K.-I. and Baba, N. (2002) Changes in Quality of Dried Macadamia Nuts during a Peak Harvest Season in Kenya. Food Science and Technology Research, 8, 32-35.
[27] Carvajal, J. and Bedoya, D. (2010) Physicochemical Study and of Stability of the Oil of Nut of Macadamia tetraphylla Cultivated in the Coffee Colombian Region. Thesis of Degree. Technological University of Pereira, Colombia.
[28] Winston, W. and Shaw, L. (1943) The Process of Oil Formation and Accumulation in Macadamia. Plant Physiology, 18, 1-7.
[29] Weston, F. and Fryer, P. (1920) Technical Handbook of Oils Fats and Waxes. In: Abbott, P., Ed., The Cambridge Technical Series, The Cambridge Technical Series, University Press Publishers, England, 120 p.
[30] Mehran, M. (1974) Oil Characteristics of Iranian Walnuts. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 51, 477-478.
[31] Farràs, M., Valls, R., Fernández-Castillejo, S., Giralt, M., Solà, R., Subirana, I., Motilva, M.-J., Konstantinidou, V., Covas, M.-I. and Fito, M. (2013) Olive Oil Polyphenols Enhance the Expression of Cholesterol Efflux Related Genes in Vivo in Humans. A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24, 1334-1339.
[32] Spector, A. (1999) Essentiality of Fatty Acids. Lipids, 34, S1-S3.
[33] Castro-Bolanos, M., Herrera-Ramírez, C. and Lutz-Cruz, G. (2005) Composition, Characterization and Potential Aterogénico of Oils, Fats and Other Derivatives Produced or Commercialized in Costa Rica. Costa Rican Medical Record, 47, 1.
[34] Mosley, E., McGuire, M.K., Willimans, J. and McGuire, M.A. (2006) Cis-9, Trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Is Synthesized from Vaccenic Acid in Lactating Women. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 2297-2301.
[35] Dreiucker, J. and Vetter, W. (2011) Fatty Acids Patterns in Camel, Moose, Cow and Human Milk as Determined with GC/MS after Silver Ion Solid Phase Extraction. Food Chemistry, 126, 762-771.
[36] Jutzeler van Wijlena, R. and Colombani, P. (2010) Grass-Based Ruminant Production Methods and Human Bioconversion of Vaccenic Acid with Estimations of Maximal Dietary Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acids. International Dairy Journal, 20, 433-448.
[37] Lock, A., Corl, B., Barbano, D., Barman, D. and Clement, I. (2004) The Anticarcinogenic Effect of Trans-11 18:1 Is Dependent on Its Conversion to Cis-9, Trans-11 CLA by △9 Desaturase in Rats. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 2698-2704.
[38] Salminen, I., Mutanen, M., Jauhiainen, M. and Aro, A. (1998) Dietary Trans Fatty Acids Increase Conjugated Linoleic Acids Levels in Human Serum. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 9, 93-98.
[39] Turpeinen, A., Mutanen, M. and Aro, A. (2002) Bioconversion of Vaccenic Acid to Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Humans1-3. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76, 504-10.
[40] Dawson, C. and Savage, G. (1997) Fatty Acid Content of New Zealand Grown Macadamia Nuts. In: O’Connor, J. and Lai, D.T., Eds., Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant Oils and Marine Lipids, Auckland, 25-28 November 1997, 1-183.
[41] Mason, R. and McConachie, I. (1994) A Hard Nut to Crack. Food Australia, 46, 466-471.
[42] Limachi, I., Farfan, O., Sterner, O. and Gimenez, A. (2009) Preliminary Studies of the Chemical Characterization of Fatty Acids of the Oil of Fruits of Bertholletia excelsa by Gas Chromatography. BIOFARBO, 7, 1.
[43] Alencar, E., Faroni, L., Peternelli, L., da Silva, M. and Costa, A. (2010) Influence of Soybean Storage Conditions on Crude Oil Quality. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 14, 303-308.
[44] Kornsteiner, M., Wagner, K. and Elmadfa, I. (2006) Tocopherols and Total Phenolics in 10 Different Nut Types. Food Chemistry, 98, 381-387.
[45] Wall, M. (2010) Functional Lipid Characteristics, Oxidative Stability, and Antioxidant Activity of Macadamia Nut (Macadamia integrifolia) Cultivars. Food Chemistry, 121, 1103-1108.
[46] Franke, A., Murphy, S., Lacey, R. and Custer, L. (2007) Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Levels of Foods Consumed in Hawaii. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 769-778.
[47] Oro, T., Ogliari, P., Castanho, R., Barrera-Arellano, D. and Mara, J. (2008) Evaluation of the Quality during the Storage of Nuts Pecán (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) Conditioned in Different Packings. Fats and Oils, 59, 132-138.
[48] Loor, R. and Mino, N. (2012) Determination of the Antirust Capacity of the Nuez of Macadamia by Means of the Method DPPH, Obtaining of His Oil Applying the Technology Soxhlet and His Applications in the Food and Cosmetic Products. Thesis of Degree, University of Guayaquil, Ecuador, 143.
[49] Sabeena, F., Anandan, R., Senthil, K., Shiny, S., Sankar, S. and Thankappan, T. (2004) Effect of Squalene on Tissue Defense System in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats. Pharmacological Research, 50, 231-236.
[50] Jurado, J. and Munoz, L. (2009) Caracterización del aceite de las semillas de Solanum quitoense L variedad la selva y evaluación de su actividad antioxidante. Thesis of Degree, Technological University of Pereira, Colombia.
[51] Mujica, V., Delgado, M., Ramírez, M., Velásquez, I., Pérez, C. and Rodríguez-Corella, M. (2010) Formulación de un producto cosmético con propiedades antiarrugas a partir del aceite de merey (Anacardium occidentale L). Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, 25, 2.
[52] Codexstan 33 (1989) Norma del Codex para los aceites de olive virgin y refinados y los aceites refinados de orujo. Rev 1989.
[53] Bailey, A. (1951) Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Interscience Publishers, New York, 967 p.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.