Electroslag Remelting of High Technological Steels


This work aims at the suitability of electroslag process on production of high technological steels such as Maraging steel, modified high speed tool steel (niobium, high nitrogen, and free nitrogen) has been investigated. The experimental results show that high recovery of alloying elements during electroslag remelting of such steels especially high nitrogen tool steel. The previous results are attributed to the slag used in electroslag protect the molten metal from atmospheric oxygen. Also higher recovery of alloying elements during remelting high nitrogen high speed tool steel are due to partial dissolution of nitrides during remelting of such steel which increase nitrogen content above the molten slag which decrease the partial pressure of oxygen leads to protection of molten metal from further oxidation. Also, the results show that, produced ingots are free from internal pipes, porosity and other surface defects. Microstructure obtained for remelted steels is very fine and well distributed for all steel under investigation. In the case of electroslag remelted Maraging steels lower non-metallic inclusions with very fine inclusions and redistribution retained austenite with very fine structure leads to increasing all tensile properties of investigated steels. In the case of high speed tool steels, also the structure is very fine, well distributed, densely and short carbides with lower non-metallic inclusions contents. High cooling rate accompanying with electroslag process has a great effect on type, morphology and content of carbides precipitated in both nitrogen and niobium modified tool steels.

Share and Cite:

Halfa, H. and Reda, A.M. (2015) Electroslag Remelting of High Technological Steels. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 3, 444-457. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.36047.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Vasudevan, V.K., Kim, S.J. and Wayman, C.M. (1990) Precipitation Reactions and Strengthening Behavior in 18 Wt Pct. Maraging Steels. Metallurgical Transaction A, 21, 2655-2668.
[2] Sha, W., Cerezo, A. and Smith, G.D.W. (1993) Phase Chemistry and Precipitation Reactions in Maraging Steels: Part II. Co-Free T-300 Steel. Metallurgical Transaction A, 24, 1221-1239.
[3] Urzinger, P.W., Rabitsch, R. and Meyer, W. (2004) Production of Maraging Steel Grades and the Influence of Specified and Non-Specified Elements for Special Applications. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Liquid Metals, Journal of Materials Science, 39, 7295-7302.
[4] Decker, R.F., Eash, J.T. and Goldman, A.J. (1962) 18% Nickel-Maraging Steel. ASM Transactions Quarterly, 55, 58-76.
[5] Halfa, H., Mattar, T. and Eissa, M. (2012) Precipitation Behavior of Modified as Cast High Nitrogen Super Hard High-Speed Tool Steel. Steel Research International, 83, 1071-1078.
[6] Halfa, H. (2013) Characterization of Electroslag Remelted Super Hard High Speed Tool Steel Containing Niobium. Steel Research International, 84, 495-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/srin.201200332
[7] Sinha, A.K. (2003) Physical Metallurgy Handbook. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York.
[8] Halfa, H. (2003) Improvement of High Speed Tool Steel by Using Electro-Slag Remelting Technology. MSc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo.
[9] Kato, M. (1985) Study on Electro-Slag Remelting. Nagoya International Training Centre, Naggoya.
[10] Biebricher, U. and Scholz, H. (1998) Electro Slag Remelting Technologies in the Past and in the Future. Metallurgical Plant and Technology International (Germany), 22, 36-38.
[11] Kelin, H.J. (1970) The Effect of Variation Melt Parameters on the Electroslag Remelting of a Nickle-Base Alloy. Proceedings of Electric Furnace Conference, 28, 21-27.
[12] Mills, K.C. and Keeme, B.J. (1981) Physicochemical Properties of Molten CaF2-Based Slags. International Metals Reviews, 1, 21-69.
[13] Wang, Z.C., Kim, S.J., Lee, C.G. and Lee, T.H. (2004) Bake-Hardening Behaviour of Cold-Rolled CMnSi and CMnSiCu TRIP-Aided Steel Sheets. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 151, 141-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.029
[14] Li, Z. and Wu, D. (2006) Effects of Hot Deformation and Subsequent Austempering on the Mechanical Properties of Si-Mn TRIP Steels. ISIJ International, 46, 121-128.
[15] Halfa, H. (2007) Improvement of Maraging Steels Using Electro-Slag Remelting Technology. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Engineering Cairo University, Cairo.
[16] Chandler, H. (1995) Heat Treater’s Guide. ASM International, Geauga County, 661-663.
[17] Nykiel, T. and Hryniewicz, T. (2000) Quantitative Approach to Coagulation, Coalescence, and Polygonization of Carbides in the NCWV/D3 Tool Steel. Metallurigical and Material Transaction A, 31, 2661-2665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-000-0211-2
[18] Grigoryan, V., Belyanchikov, L. and Stomakhin, A. (1983) Theortical Principle of Electric Steelmaking. Mir Publisher, Moscow.
[19] Chen, H.C., Era, H. and Shimizu, M. (1989) Effect of Phosphorus on the Formation of Retained Austenite and Mechanical Properties in Si-Containing Low-Carbon Steel Sheet. Metallurgical Transaction A, 20, 437-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02653923
[20] Fathy, A., Mattar, T., El-Faramawy, H. and Bleck, W. (2002) Mechanical Properties of New Low-Nickel Cobalt-Free Maraging Steels. Steel Research, 73, 549-556.
[21] Decker, R.F., Floreen, S. and Wilson, R.K. (1988) Maraging Steel: Recent Developments and Applications. Proceedings of the Symposium of TMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, 25-29 January 1988, 1-38.
[22] Vanderwalker, D.M. (1987) The Precipitation Sequence of Ni3Ti in Co-Free Maraging Steel. Metallurgical Transaction A, 18, 1191-1194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02647188
[23] Ayub, H., Ahmed, M., Husain, S.W. and Khan, A.Q. (1997) Phase Transformation and Magnetic Properties in Cobalt Free and Low Cobalt Maraging Steels. Materials Science and Technology, 13, 110-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/mst.1997.13.2.110
[24] Rajkumar, K.V., Anish Kumar, T., Jayakumar, Raj, B. and Ray, K.K. (2007) Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel Using Ultrasonic Measurements. Metallurigical and Material Transaction A, 38, 236-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-006-9060-y
[25] Ding, P., Shi, G. and Zhon, S. (1993) As Cast Carbides in High Speed Steels. Metallurgical Transaction A, 24, 1265-1272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02668195
[26] Hoyle, C. (1988) High Speed Steels. Butterworth Co. Ltd., London.
[27] Roberts, G.A. and Cary, A.R. (1992) Tool Steels. American Society for Metals, Geauga County.
[28] Rong, W., Andren, H.-O., Wisell, H. and Dunlop, G.L. (1992) The Role of Alloy Composition in the Precipitation Behaviour of High Speed Steels. Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, 40, 1727-1738.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.