Prevalence and the Risk Factors of Renal Insufficiency in the City of Saint Louis in Senegal


Background: The true scale of renal insufficiency (RI) in Sub-Saharan Africa remains unknown due to the lack of national registries. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of renal insufficiency in urban areas in Saint Louis of Senegal. Materials and Methods: It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. The study was conducted during 27 days starting from 3 to 30 May 2010. All senegalese residents of Saint Louis (older than 15 years at the time of the study) in whom creatinine clearance was performed were included in the study. The sampling method used was a systematic random sampling, stratified cluster. The survey was designed by an expert comitee based on STEPS survey of the World Health Organization. RI was defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results: Among 1424 people initially selected a final selection of 1416 was made. The sex ratio was 0.45. The mean age was 43.4 ± 17.8 years. The overall prevalence of renal insufficiency according to MDRD (Modification of diet in renal disease) formula was 181 cases or 12.7%. The mean age of the people with renal insufficiency was 47.6 ± 17.4 years. Renal insufficiency was correlated to height blood pressure (p = 0.01) and Physical inactivity (p = 0.0001). The prevalence of renal insufficiency was higher in diabetics (71.4%) and obese people (66.6%) than in non-diabetics (64.9%) and non-obese people (56.5%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Dyslipidemia and smoking were not correlated to the risk of occurrence of IR. Conclusions: This study reports the increasing magnitude of RI and its risk factors in the city of Saint Louis in Senegal. It is imperative to establish à national prevention strategies to avoid the dizzying growth of this scourge.

Share and Cite:

Lemrabott, A. , Moustapha Cisse, M. , Fary Ka, E. , Seck, S. , Faye, M. , Sarr, M. , Diaba Gaye, N. , Mbaye, A. , Niang, A. , Diouf, B. and Kane, A. (2015) Prevalence and the Risk Factors of Renal Insufficiency in the City of Saint Louis in Senegal. Open Journal of Nephrology, 5, 83-90. doi: 10.4236/ojneph.2015.53013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Cerda, J., Lameire, N., Eggers, P., et al. (2008) Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 3, 881-886.
[2] Lengani, A., Kargougou, D., Fogazzi, G.B., et al. (2010) Acute Renal Failure in Burkina Faso. Nephrology & Therapeutics, 6, 28-34.
[3] Sumaili, E.K., Krzesinski, J.-M., Cohen, E.P., et al. (2010) Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Review of Cross-Sectional Studies from Kinshasa, the Capital. Nephrology & Therapeutics, 6, 232-239.
[4] Ouattara, B., Kra, O., Yao, H., et al. (2011) Characteristics of Chronic Renal Failure in Black Adult Patients Hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Department of Treichville University Hospital. Nephrology & Therapeutics, 7, 531-534.
[5] Economic and Social Situation of the Region of Saint-Louis, Year 2009 (2009) National Agency of Statistics and Demography.
[6] WHO (2010) The WHO STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS).
[7] Alberti, K.G., Zimmet, P., Shaw, J., et al. (2005) IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The Metabolic Syndrome: A New Worldwide Definition. Lancet, 366, 1059-1062.
[8] Mahon, A. (2008) Epidemiology and Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy. European Endocrinology, 2, 33-36.
[9] Imai, E., Horio, M., Watanabe, T., Iseki, K., et al. (2009) Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Japanese General Population. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, 13, 621-630.
[10] Afolabi, M.O., Adioye-Kuteyi, E.A., Arogundade, F.A. and Bello, I.S. (2009) Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Nigerian Family Practice Population. South African Family Practice, 51, 132-137.
[11] Otero, A., de Francisco, A.L.M., Gayosol, P. and Garcia, F. (2010) Prevalence of Chronic Renal Disease in Spain: Results of the EPIRCE Study. Nefrologia, 30, 78-86.
[12] Cirillo, M., Laurenzi, M., Mancini, M., Zanchetti, A., Lombardi, C. and de Santo, N.G. (2006) Low Glomerular Filtration in the Population: Prevalence, Associated Disorders, and Awareness. Kidney International, 70, 800-806.
[13] Zhang, L.X., Zuo, L., Xu, G.B., Wang, F., Wang, M., Wang, S.Y., et al. (2007) Community-Based Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease among Populations Older than 40 Years in Beijing. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 22, 1093-1099.
[14] Anderson, S., Halter, J.B., Hazzard, W.R., Himmelfarb, J., Horne, F.M., Kaysen, G.A., et al. (2009) Prediction, Progression, and Outcomes of Chronic Kidney Disease in Older Adults. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 20, 1199-1209.
[15] Bryson, C.L., Ross, H.J., Boyko, E.J. and Young, B.A. (2006) Racial and Ethnic Variations in Albuminuria in the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) Population: Associations with Diabetes and Level of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 48, 720-726.
[16] Villar, E. and Zaoui, P. (2010) Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: Lessons from Renal Epidemiology. Néphrologie & Thérapeutique, 6, 585-590.
[17] Ndaw, M.D. (2010) Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Diabetes Mellitus: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Saint Louis, Senegal. PhD Thesis, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar.
[18] Hricik, D.E., Chung-Park, M. and Sedor J.R. (1998) Glomerulonephritis. New England Journal of Medicine, 339, 888-899.
[19] Ram, C.V.S. and Silverstein, R.L. (2009) Treatment of Hypertensive Urgencies and Emergencies. Current Hypertension Reports, 11, 307-314.
[20] Kaba, M.L., Diakite, M., Bah, A.O., Sylla, I.S., Cherif, I., Tolno, A., et al. (2010) Lipid Profile of Uremic Patients at Donka National Hospital in Conakry. Medecine d’Afrique Noire, 57, 255-258.
[21] Moorhead, J.F., Chan, M.K., El-Nahas, M. and Varghese, Z. (1982) Lipid Nephrotoxicity in Chronic Progressive Glomerular and Tubulo-Interstitial Disease. Lancet, 11, 1309-1311.
[22] Chawla, V., Greene, T., Beck, G.J., Kusek, J.W., Collins, A.J., Sarnak, M.J. and Menon, V. (2010) Hyperlipidemia and Long-Term Outcomes in Nondiabetic Chronic Kidney Disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 5, 1582-1587.
[23] Muhaisen, R.M., Sharif, F.A. and Yassin, M.M. (2012) Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Children with Chronic Kidney Disease in Gaza Strip. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 3, 91-98.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.