Flood Risk Map Based on GIS, and Multi Criteria Techniques (Case Study Terengganu Malaysia)


The heavy floods in the Terengganu have showed an increasing trend in recent years. Terrain characteristics of land and meteorological properties of the region are main natural factors for this disaster. In this paper, Terengganu was selected as the case study for flood risk analysis. Geographical Information System (GIS) is integrated with Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) to evaluate the potential flood risk areas. Some of the causative factors for flooding in watershed are taken into account as annual rainfall, basin slope, drainage network and the type of soil. The spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to rank and display potential locations, while the analytical hierarchy process method was used to compute the priority weights of each criterion. Using AHP, the percentages derived from the factors were Rainfall 38.7%, Drainage network 27.5%, Slope of the river basin 19.8% and Soil type 14%. At the end of the study, a map of flood risk areas was generated and validated with a view to assisting decision makers on the menace posed by the disaster.

Share and Cite:

Elsheikh, R. , Ouerghi, S. and Elhag, A. (2015) Flood Risk Map Based on GIS, and Multi Criteria Techniques (Case Study Terengganu Malaysia). Journal of Geographic Information System, 7, 348-357. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2015.74027.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Pradhan, B. (2008) Flood Susceptible Analysis at Kelantan River Basin Using Remote Sensing and Logistic Regression Model. Flood%2520susceptible%2520mapping%2520and%2520risk%2520area%2520delineation%2520using%2520 logistic%2520regression.doc+GIS+FLOOD+IN+TERRENGANU&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=my
[2] Fernandez, D.S. and Lutz, M.A. (2010) Urban Flood Hazard Zoning in Tucumán Province, Argentina, Using GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis. Engineering Geology, 111, 90-98.
[3] Meyer, V. and Haase, D. (2009) A Multicriteria Flood Risk Assessment and Mapping Approach. Taylor & Francis Group, London.
[4] Meyer, V., Scheuer, S. and Haase, D. (2008) A Multicriteria Approach for Flood Risk Mapping Exemplified at the Mulderiver. Germany Natural Hazards, 48, 17-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11069-008-9244-4
[5] Yahaya, S., Ahmad, N. and Abdalla, R.F. (2010) Multicriteria Analysis for Flood Vulnerable Areas in Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 42, 71-83.
[6] Yalcin, G. (2002) Analyzing Flood Vulnerable Areas with Multicriteria Evaluation. Unpublished MS Thesis in GGIT METU, Ankara. http://www.isprs.org/istanbul2004/comm2/papers/154.pdf
[7] Malczewski, J. (1996) A GIS-Based Approach to Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 10, 955-971.
[8] DID (2006) Monthly Summary of Marine Meteorological Observation. Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Kuala Lumpur.
[9] Saaty, T.L. (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.