Organic Manures and Crop Residues as Fertilizer Substitutes: Impact on Nitrous Oxide Emission, Plant Growth and Grain Yield in Pre-Monsoon Rice Cropping System


It has been previously argued that application of organic residues added in soils has a great impact on soil quality, grain productivity as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Substitution of chemical fertilizers has become a common practice in agricultural systems which consequently affect the greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural fields. To observe the effects of organic manures and crop residues amendments, five fertilizer treatments including conventional inorganic nitrogen fertilizer—NPK, cow manure, rice straw, poultry manure and sugarcane bagasse were applied in the field for two consecutive pre-monsoon rice seasons. Addition of rice straw, poultry manure and sugarcane bagasse decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 14% and 31%, and by 1% and 7% and 5% and 3% in 2012 and 2013 respectively when compared with conventional fertilizer treatment (NPK) in both the seasons. Yield differences were not significant (p > 0.005) amongst the treatments, however, a slight increase was observed due to rice straw amendment over control. Soil organic carbon decreased by 11% - 17% under the application of organic residues which might have contributed to lower N2O emissions from the plots. Results of carbon equivalent emission (CEE) and carbon efficiency ratio (CER) indicated that incorporation of rice straw during pre-monsoon rice season had the potential to reduce the N2O emissions and yield scaled emissions of rice production at lower level than the conventional farmers’ practice of using chemical fertilizers (NPK).

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Baruah, A. and Baruah, K. (2015) Organic Manures and Crop Residues as Fertilizer Substitutes: Impact on Nitrous Oxide Emission, Plant Growth and Grain Yield in Pre-Monsoon Rice Cropping System. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 755-770. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.67069.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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