Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Use in Parts of the Chandauli-Varanasi Region, Uttar Pradesh, India


The present study focused on the hydrochemistry of groundwater in parts of Chandauli-Varanasi region to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Urbanization and agriculture activities have a lot of impacts on the groundwater quality of the study area. A total of 70 ground water samples were collected randomly from different sources viz. hand pump, dug wells and bore wells, and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > Cl > SO4 > NO3 > F. The Piper classification for hydrogeochemical facies indicates that alkaline earth exceeds alkalis and weak acids exceed strong acid. Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. Out of 70 groundwater samples, 7% and 10% samples exhibit water unsuitable for drinking purposes in pre- and post-monsoon, respectively, due to effective leaching of ions, direct discharge of domestic effluents and agricultural activities. Residual sodium carbonate values revealed that 6% sample is not suitable for irrigation purposes in both the seasons due to low permeability of the soil. The calculated values of PI indicate that the water for irrigation uses is excellent to good quality in both seasons. As per Wilcox’s diagram and US salinity laboratory classification, most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation except one sample which is unsuitable for irrigation purposes. The overall quality of groundwater in post-monsoon season in all chemical constituents is on the higher side due to dissolution of surface pollutants during the infiltration and percolation of rainwater at few places due to agricultural and domestic activities.

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Singh, S. , Raju, N. and Ramakrishna, C. (2015) Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Use in Parts of the Chandauli-Varanasi Region, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 572-587. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.77046.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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