Grounding the Human Body during Yoga Exercise with a Grounded Yoga Mat Reduces Blood Viscosity


Objective: Research continues to show that being connected to the earth can increase the potential of the body to scavenge free radicals. This study examined the effect of just one hour of grounding on blood viscosity while subjects participated in gentle yoga exercises designed to initiate minor inflammation. Design: In this double blind model, twenty-eight (28) subjects met at the Bowerman Sports Medicine Clinic on the campus of the University of Oregon and were grounded to the earth via contact with a grounded yoga mat or were sham-grounded. Ten yoga exercises were repeated five times over a one-hour period. Blood was taken pre and post exercise and analyzed for blood viscosity using a scanning capillary viscometer. Results: Subjects connected to the earth significantly reduced their post exercise systolic blood viscosity (p = 0.03) and diastolic blood viscosity (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Grounding has the ability to affect exercise induced inflammation, thereby reducing blood viscosity.

Share and Cite:

Brown, R. and Chevalier, G. (2015) Grounding the Human Body during Yoga Exercise with a Grounded Yoga Mat Reduces Blood Viscosity. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 159-168. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.54019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Williams, E.R. and Heckman, S.J. (1993) The Local Diurnal Variation of Cloud Electrification and the Global Diurnal Variation of Negative Charge on the Earth. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 5221-5234.
[2] Anisimov, S.V., Mareev, E.A. and Bakastov, S.S. (1999) On the Generation and Evolution of Aeroelectric Structures in the Surface Layer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 14359-14367.
[3] Applewhite, R. (2005) The Effectiveness of a Conductive Patch and a Conductive Bed Pad in Reducing Induced Human Body Voltage via the Application of Earth Ground. European Biology and Bioelectromagnetics, 1, 23-40.
[4] Oschman, J.L. (2009) Charge Transfer in the Living Matrix. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 13, 215-228.
[5] Oschman, J.L. (2007) Can Electrons Act as Antioxidants? A Review and Commentary. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13, 955-967.
[6] Chevalier, G., Sinatra, S.T., Oschman, J.L., Sokal, K. and Sokal, P. (2012) Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth’s Surface Electrons. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, Article ID: 291541.
[7] Brown, R., Chevalier, G. and Hill, M. (2010) Pilot Study on the Effect of Grounding on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16, 265-273.
[8] Brown, R., Chevalier, G. and Hill, M. (2015) Grounding after Moderate Eccentric Contractions Reduces Muscle Damage. International Blood Research & Review, Unpublished.
[9] Oschman, J., Chevalier, G. and Brown, R. (2015) The Effects of Grounding (Earthing) on Inflammation, the Immune Response, Wound Healing, and Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases. Journal of Inflammation Research, 8, 83-96.
[10] Oschman, J., Chevalier, G. and Ober, A. (2015) Biophysics of Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body. In: Rosch, P.J., Ed., Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, New York, 427-448.
[11] Curtis, D., Fallows, S., Morris, M. and McMakin, C. (2010) The Efficacy of Frequency Specific Microcurrent Therapy on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 14, 272-279.
[12] Brun, J.F. (2002) Exercise Hemorheology as a Three Acts Play with Metabolic Actors: Is It of Clinical Relevance? Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 26, 155-174.
[13] Brun, J.F., Belhabas, H., Granat, M.Ch., Sagnes, C., Thöni, G., Micallef, J.P. and Mercier, J. (2002) Postexercise Red Cell Aggregation Is Negatively Correlated with Blood Lactate Rate of Disappearance. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 26, 231-239.
[14] Fernandes, H.P., Cesar, C.L. and Barjas-Castro Mde, L. (2011) Electrical Properties of the Red Blood Cell Membrane and Immunohematological Investigation. Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia, 33, 297-301.
[15] Pop, G.A., Duncker, D.J., Gardien, M., Vranckx, P., Versluis, S., Hasan, D. and Slager, C.J. (2002) The Clinical Significance of Whole Blood Viscosity in (Cardio) Vascular Medicine. Netherlands Heart Journal: Monthly Journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation, 10, 512-516.
[16] Larsen, P. (2012) Monitoring Blood Viscosity to Improve Cognitive Function. Washington Association of Naturopathic Physicians, Fall Issue 2012.
[17] Rosenson, R.S., Fioretto, P. and Dodson, P.M. (2011) Does Microvascular Disease Predict Macrovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes? Atherosclerosis, 218, 13-18.
[18] Jeong, S.K., Cho, Y.I., Duey, M. and Rosenson, R.S. (2010) Cardiovascular Risks of Anemia Correction with Erythrocyte Stimulating Agents: Should Blood Viscosity Be Monitored for Risk Assessment? Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy/Sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, 24, 151-160.
[19] Cho, Y.I. and Cho, D.J. (2011) Hemorheology and Microvascular Disorders. Korean Circulation Journal, 41, 287-295.
[20] Fernandes, H.P., Fontes, A., Thomaz, A., Castro, V., Cesar, C.L. and Barjas-Castro, M.L. (2013) Measuring Red Blood Cell Aggregation Forces Using Double Optical Tweezers. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation, 73, 262-264.
[21] Baskurt, O.K., Uyuklu, M., Ozdem, S. and Meiselman, H.J. (2011) Measurement of Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Disposable Capillary Tubes. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 47, 295-305.
[22] Simmonds, M.J., Rhys, C., Marshall-Gradisnik, S.M., Meiselman, H.J. and Baskurt, O.K. (2011) Red Blood Cell Aggregation Parameters Measured by Capillary Tube Aggregometer Using Venous and Capillary Blood Samples. Korea-Australia Rheology Journal, 23, 205-210.
[23] Baskurt, O.K. and Meiselman, H.J. (1997) Cellular Determinants of Low-Shear Blood Viscosity. Biorheology, 34, 235-247.
[24] Tripette, J., Alexy, T., Hardy-Dessources, M.D., Mougenel, D., Beltan, E., Chalabi, T., Chout, R., Etienne-Julan, M., Hue, O., Meiselman, H.J. and Connes, P. (2009) Red Blood Cell Aggregation, Aggregate Strength and Oxygen Transport Potential of Blood Are Abnormal in both Homozygous Sickle Cell Anemia and Sickle-Hemoglobin C Disease. Haematologica, 94, 1060-1065.
[25] Brun, J.F., Varlet-Marie, E., Romain, A.J., Guiraudou, M. and Raynaud de Mauverger, E. (2013) Exercise Hemorheology: Moving from Old Simplistic Paradigms to a More Complex Picture. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 55, 15-27.
[26] Chevalier, G., Sinatra, S.T., Oschman, J.L. and Delany, R.M. (2013) Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity—A Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19, 102-110.
[27] Lowe, G., Rumley, A., Norrie, J., Ford, I., Shepherd, J., Cobbe, S., Macfarlane, P. and Packard, C. (2000) Blood Rheology, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Disease: The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 84, 553-558.
[28] Sloczyńska, K., Kózka, M. and Marona, H. (2013) Red Blood Cell Deformability and Aggregation in Chronic Venous Disease Patients with Varicose Veins. Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej, 67, 690-694.
[29] Stein, P.D. and Sabbah, H.N. (1974) Measured Turbulence and Its Effect on Thrombus Formation. Circulation Research, 35, 608-614.
[30] Traub, O. and Berk, B.C. (1998) Laminar Shear Stress: Mechanisms by Which Endothelial Cells Transduce an Atheroprotective Force. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 18, 677-685.
[31] Holsworth, R.E. and Wright, J.V. (2012) Blood Viscosity: The Unifying Parameter in Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Holistic Primary Care, 13, 1-2.
[32] Cassilhas, R.C., Viana, V.A.R., Grassmann, V., Santos, R.T., Santos, R.F., Tufik, S. and Mello, M.T. (2007) The Impact of Resistance Exercise on the Cognitive Function of the Elderly. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 1401-1407.
[33] Lowe, G.D., Lee, A.J., Rumley, A., Price, J.F. and Fowkes, F.G. (1997) Blood Viscosity and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: The Edinburgh Artery Study. British Journal of Haematology, 96, 168-173.
[34] Ciuffetti, G., Schillaci, G., Lombardini, R., Pirro, M., Vaudo, G. and Mannarin, E. (2005) Prognostic Impact of Low-Shear Whole Blood Viscosity in Hypertensive Men. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 35, 93-98.
[35] Letcher, R.L., Chien, S., Pickering, T.G., Sealey, J.E. and Laragh, J.H. (1981) Direct Relationship between Blood Pressure and Blood Viscosity in Normal and Hypertensive Subjects: Role of Fibrinogen and Concentration. The American Journal of Medicine, 70, 1195-1202.
[36] Jeong, S.K. and Rosensen, R. (2013) Shear Rate Specific Blood Viscosity and Shear Stress of Carotid Artery Duplex Ultrasonography in Patients with Lacunar Infarction. BMC Neurology, 13, 36.
[37] Larsen, P. and Holsworth, R. (2012) Measuring Blood Viscosity to Improve Patient Outcomes. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine.
[38] Cho, Y.I. and Kensey, K.R. (1991) Effects of the Non-Newtonian Viscosity of Blood on Flows in a Diseased Arterial Vessel. Part 1: Steady Flows. Biorheology, 28, 241-262.
[39] Marton, Z., Kesmarky, G., Vekasi, J., Cser, A., Russai, R., Horvath, B. and Toth, K. (2001) Red Blood Cell Aggregation Measurements in Whole Blood and in Fibrinogen Solutions by Different Methods. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 24, 75-83.
[40] Hemathix Blood Analyzer (2013) Blood Viscosity Test Specimen Requirements. Rheovector LLC, Camden, 1.
[41] Woodcock, B.E., Smith, E., Lambert, W.H., Jones, W.M., Galloway, J.H., Greaves, M. and Preston, F.E. (1984) Beneficial Effect of Fish Oil on Blood Viscosity in Peripheral Vascular Disease. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 288, 592-594.
[42] Sinatra, S.T. (2003) Is Cholesterol Lowering with Statins the Gold Standard for Treating Patients with Cardiovascular Risk and Disease? Southern Medical Journal, 96, 220-222.
[43] Carroll, S., Cooke, C.B. and Butterly, R.J. (2000) Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and the Primary Components of Blood Viscosity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 353-358.
[44] El-Sayed, M. (1998) Effects of Exercise and Training on Blood Rheology. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 26, 281-292.
[45] Ernst, E.E. and Matrai, A. (1987) Intermittent Claudication, Exercise, and Blood Rheology. Circulation, 76, 1110-1114.
[46] Brun, J.F., Khaled, S., Raynaud, E., Bouix, D., Micallef, J.P. and Orsetti, A. (1998) The Triphasic Effects of Exercise on Blood Rheology: Which Relevance to Physiology and Pathophysiology? Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 19, 89-104.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.