Pure and Mixed Plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Cupressus lusitanica: Their Growth Interactions and Effect on Diversity and Density of Undergrowth Woody Plants in Relation to Light


Published results on the growth interactions of non-nitrogen fixing mixed plantations species, and their impact on the regeneration of woody plants are scant. This paper addresses the growth interactions of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Cupressus lusitanica and their impact on the regeneration of woody plants in relation with light. Data on the regenerated woody plants, individual characteristics of the plantation species and light reaching under the canopies were collected using sample plots (n = 4) with a size of 20 m × 20 m for each plantation type. The result showed that, E. camaldulensis was suppressing the growth of C. lusitanica while its growth was favored when it was mixed with C. lusitanica (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the pure and mixed plantations in their diversity and density of undergrowth woody plants (p > 0.05). Density of plantation trees were found not having a significant relationship with diversity of species (p = 0.801). There was a significant but not direct relationship between light reached in the understory of the canopies and diversity of species in the plantations (p = 0.027). Overall, the result indicated that both the pure and the mixed plantations were favoring the recruitment of woody plants.

Share and Cite:

Alem, S. , Pavlis, J. , Urban, J. and Kucera, J. (2015) Pure and Mixed Plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Cupressus lusitanica: Their Growth Interactions and Effect on Diversity and Density of Undergrowth Woody Plants in Relation to Light. Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 375-386. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.54032.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Alem, S., & Pavlis, J. (2012). Native Woody Plants Diversity and Density under Eucalyptus camaldulensis Plantation, in Gibie Valley, South Western Ethiopia. Open Journal of Forestry, 2, 232-239.
[2] Alem, S., & Woldemariam, T. (2009). A Comparative Assessment on Regeneration Status of Indigenous Woody Plants in Eucalyptus grandis Plantation and Adjacent Natural Forest. Journal of Forestry Research, 20, 31-36.
[3] Azene, B.T., Beánie, A., & Tengnas, B. (2007). Useful Trees and Shrubs for Ethiopia: Identification, Propagation and Management for 17 Agro-Climatic Zones. RELMA, Nairobi, Kenya.
[4] Dan, B., Randy, S., Suzanne, B., & Thomas, G.C. (2003). Twenty Years of Stand Development in Pure and Mixed Stands of Eucalyptus saligna and Nitrogen-Fixing Facaltaria moluccana. Forest Ecology and Management, 182, 93-102.
[5] Debell, D. S., Whitesell, C. D., & Schubert, T. H. (1985). Mixed Plantations of Eucalyptus and Leguminous Trees Enhance Biomass Production; Research Paper PSW-175. Berkeley: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
[6] Erskine, P. D., Lamb, D., & Bristow, M. (2006). Tree Species Diversity and Ecosystem Function: Can Tropical Multi-Species Plantations Generate Greater Productivity? Forest Ecology and Management, 233, 205-210.
[7] Eshetu, Y. (2001). Diversity of Naturally Regenerated Native Woody Species in Forest Plantations in the Ethiopian Highlands. New Forests, 22, 159-177.
[8] Eshetu, Y., & Olavi, L. (2004). Photosynthetically Active Radiation Transmittance of Forest Plantation Canopies in the Ethiopian Highlands. Forest Ecology and Management, 81, 215-226.
[9] Evans, J. (1992). Plantation Forestry in the Tropics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[10] Evans, J. (1999). Planted Forests of the Wet and Dry Tropics: Their Variety, Nature, and Significance. New Forests, 17, 25-36.
[11] Evans, J., & Turnbull, J. W. (2004). Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[12] FAO (2001). State of the World’s Forests. Rome: FAO.
[13] Feyera, S., & Demel, T. (2001). Regeneration of Indigenous Woody Species under the Canopy of Tree Plantations in Central Ethiopia. Tropical Ecology, 42, 175-185.
[14] Feyera, S., Demel, T., & Bertake, N. (2002). Native Woody Species Regeneration in Exotic Tree Plantations at Munessa-Shashemene Forest, Southern Ethiopia. New Forests, 24, 131-145.
[15] Fichtl, R., & Admasu, A. (1994). Honeybee Flora of Ethiopia. Würzburg: Benedict Press.
[16] Fimbel, R. A., & Fimbel, C. C. (1996). The Role of Exotic Conifer Plantations in Rehabilitating Degraded Tropical Forest Lands: A Case Study from the Kibale Forest in Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 81, 215-226.
[17] Funayama, S., Terashima, I., & Yahara, T. (2001). Effects of Virus Infection and Light Environment on Population Dynamics of Eupatorium makinoi (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany, 88, 616-622.
[18] Gerontidis, S. (2000). Native Forest Regeneration in Pine and Eucalypt Plantations in Northern Province, South Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 101-115.
[19] Guariguata, M. R., Rheingans, R., & Montagnini, F. (1995). Early Woody Invasion under Tree Plantations in Costa Rica: Implications for Forest Restoration. Restoration Ecology, 3, 252-260.
[20] Harrington, R. A., & Ewel, J. J. (1997). Invisibility of Tree Plantations by Native and Non-Indigenous Plant Species in Hawaii. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 153-162.
[21] Jagger, P., & Pender, J. (2000). The Role of Trees for Sustainable Management of Less Favored Lands: The Case of Eucalypts in Ethiopia. Washington DC: International Food Research Institute.
[22] Kelty, M. (2006). The Role of Species Mixtures in Plantation Forestry. Forest Ecology and Management, 233, 195-204.
[23] Kent, M., & Coker, P. (1994). Vegetation Description and Analysis: A Practical Approach. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
[24] Kitessa, H. (2010). Status of Indigenous Tree Species Regeneration under Exotic Plantations in Belete Forest, South West Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Science, 5, 19-28.
[25] Lamb, D., Erskine, P. D., & Parrotta, J. A. (2005). Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes. Science, 310, 1628-1632.
[26] Lugo, A. E. (1992). Tree Plantation for Rehabilitating Damaged Lands in the Tropics. In M. K. Wali (Ed.), Environmental Rehabilitation (pp. 247-255). Hague: SPB Academic Publishing.
[27] Mila, B., Jerome, K. V., Lyndon, B., & Mark, H. (2006). Growth and Species Interactions of Eucalyptus pellita in a Mixed and Monoculture Plantation in the Humid Tropics of North Queensland. Forest Ecology and Management, 233, 285-294.
[28] Montagnini, F., Gonzales, E., & Porras, C. (1995). Mixed and Pure Forest Plantations in the Humid Neotropics: A Comparison of Early Growth, Pest Damage and Establishment Cost. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 74, 306-314.
[29] Parrotta, J. A. (1995). Influence of Overstory Composition on Understory Colonization by Native Species in Plantations on a Degraded Tropical Site. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 627-636.
[30] Son, Y., Lee, Y. Y., Jun, Y. C., & Kim, Z. (2004). Light Availability and Understory Vegetation Four Years after Thinning in a Larix leptolepis Plantation of Central Korea. Journal of Forest Research, 9, 133-139.
[31] Tapani, M. T. (2001). Species Diversity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Woodlots and Miombo Woodland in Northeastern Zimbabwe. New Forests, 22, 239-257.
[32] Yang, Z. J., Xu, D. P., Chen, W. P., Huang, L. J., Li, S. J., & Chen, Y. (2009). Growth Effect of Eucalyptus-Acacia Mixed Plantation in South China. The Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 2339-2344.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.