Climate and Epidemiology of Malaria in Port Harcourt Region, Nigeria


The study examines the effect of climate on the occurrence of malaria in Port Harcourt. To achieve this, the study adopted the survey designs which involved the use of archival data of climate parameters and the survey of hospitals for epidemiological data of malaria cases reports within Port Harcourt and environs. The archival weather data on temperature and rainfall were collected from the Nigeria Meteorological Service Agency (NIMET) for a period of sixty-five (65) years (1950-2014), and those for medical records of malaria cases were extracted from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospitals (UPTH), Braithwaite Memorial Hospital (BMH) and some renowned private hospitals in Port Harcourt and environs for a period of sixty-five (65) years. The multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relative effect of rainfall and temperature on malaria incidence. The polynomial and linear trend analysis was used for the trend pattern of malaria cases, rainfall and temperature. The results revealed an annual rainfall of 2375 mm, with an increase of 1581 mm of rainfall from 1950 till date. It also showed an urban warming of 3°C from 1950 to 2014, and a mean of 27.2°C in temperature in Port Harcourt. The results of the multiple regression reveal that the prevalence of malaria is significantly dependent on the increase in rainfall and temperature in Port Harcourt. There are double maxima of malaria cases with 1006 cases in July and 1540 cases in September, which coincide with the months with double rain maxima. On this premise and health care planning and development, it is recommended that regular clearing of drains and the surrounding environment on monthly basis should be intensified, as well as the distribution of mosquito’s insecticide net by the three tier of government.

Share and Cite:

Weli, V. and Efe, S. (2015) Climate and Epidemiology of Malaria in Port Harcourt Region, Nigeria. American Journal of Climate Change, 4, 40-47. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.41004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Molineaux, L., Muir, D.A., Spencer, H.C. and Werndorfer, H.C. (1988) The Epidemiology of Malaria and Its Measurement. In: Werndsdorfer, W.H. and Mcgregor, S., Eds., Malaria: Principles and Practices of Malariology, Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, 999-1089.
[2] Sharma, V.P. and Bos, R. (2003) Determinants of Malaria in South-Asia. In: Casman, E. and Dowlatabadi, H., Eds., The Contextual Determinants of Malaria, Resources for the Future, Carnegie Mellon University, Washington DC, 110-132.
[3] Eisenberg, J.N., Desai, M.A., Levy, K., et al. (2007) Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease: A Framework for Tracking Causal Links and Guiding Public Health Research. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, 1216-1223.
[4] Sutherst, R.W. (2004) Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17, 136-173.
[5] Tsai, H. and Liu, T. (2008) Effect of Global Climate Change on Disease Epidemics and Social Instability around the World. An International Workshop on Human Security and Climate Change, Oslo, 21-23 June 2008, 21-23.
[6] Efe, S.I. and Ojoh, C. (2013) Climate Variability and Malaria Prevalence in Warri Metropolis. Atmospheric and climate Science, Scientific Research USA, 3, 132-140.
[7] Sachs, J. and Malaney, P. (2002) The Economic and Social Burden of Malaria. Nature, 415, 680-685.
[8] Whalther, G.R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesan, C., Beebee, J.J.C., Fromentin, J.M., Hoegh-Guldberg, O. and Bairlein, F. (2002) Ecological Responses to Recent Climate Change. Nature, 416, 389-395.
[9] WHO (2004) Global Strategic Framework for Integrated Vector Management. WHO Document, WHO, Geneva, 1-12.
[10] Chapman, C.A., Gillespie, T.R. and Goldberg, T.L. (2005) Primates and the Ecology of Their Infectious Disease: How Will Anthropogenic Change Affect Host Parasite Interactions? Evolutionary Anthropology, 14, 134-144.
[11] Mckenzie, V.J. and Townsend, A.R. (2007) Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles. EcoHealth, 4, 384-396.
[12] Ayoade, J.O. (2004) Climate Change: A Synopsis of Its Nature, Causes, Effects & Management. Vantage Publishers Ltd., Ibadan.
[13] Alaba, A.O. (2005) Malaria and Rural Household Productivity in Oyo State. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
[14] WHO (2004) Action Plan for Malaria Control (1995-2000). Preventive Action and Intensification of the Struggle against Malaria Control, Mimeograph. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[15] Weli, V.E. and Worlu, S.O. (2011) Recent Rainstorm Dynamics and Its Implications for Flood Frequency in Sub-Humid Tropical City of Port Harcourt Nigeria. Journal of Geographic Thought, 12, 31-81.
[16] Eludoyin, O.S. and Weli, V.E. (2012) Spatial Analysis of Flood Vulnerability Levels in Port Harcourt Metropolis Using GIS. Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, 2, 617-623.
[17] Grover-Kopec, E.K., Blumenthal, M.B., Ceccato, P., Dinku, T., Omumbo, J.A. and Connor, S.J. (2006) Web-Based Climate Information Resources for Malaria Control in Africa. Malaria Journal, 5, 38.
[18] Vanwambeke, S.O., Lambin, E.F., Eichhorn, M.P., Flasse, S.P., Harbach, R.E., Oskam, L., et al. (2007) Impact of Land-Use Change on Dengue and Malaria in Northern Thailand. EcoHealth, 4, 37-51.
[19] Efe, S.I. (2006) Regionalisation of Nigeria Climate: A Recent Approach. The Nigerian Academic Forum, 11, 32-39.
[20] Efe, S.I. and Ojoh, C.O. (2013) Spatial Distribution of Malaria in Warri Metropolis. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 3, 118-124.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.