An Acoustic Modem Featuring a Multi-Receiver and Ultra-Low Power


Wireless technology for underwater communication possesses a wide range of potential application, but it is still a relatively unexplored area in many aspects concerning modems physical design. A step towards future deployment of underwater networks is the reduction of power consumption. Therefore, asynchronous wakeup systems need to be integrated within the physical layer design while avoiding the use of additional transducers. This paper offers a practical and generic solution to adapt data reception and transmission together with asynchronous wakeup sub-systems in acoustic underwater modem architectures using a low power and low cost solution. The proposal has been implemented in a real prototype with success.

Share and Cite:

Sánchez, A. , Blanc, S. , Yuste, P. , Perles, A. and Serrano, J. (2015) An Acoustic Modem Featuring a Multi-Receiver and Ultra-Low Power. Circuits and Systems, 6, 1-12. doi: 10.4236/cs.2015.61001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Akyildiz, I.F., Pompili, D. and Melodia, T. (2005) Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Research Challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 3, 257-279.
[2] Heidemann, J., Stojanovic, M. and Zorzi, M. (2012) Underwater Sensor Networks: Applications, Advances, and Challenges. Royal Society, 370, 158-175.
[3] Freitag, L., Grund, M., Singh, S., Partan, J., Koski, P. and Ball, K. (2005) The WHOI Micro-Modem: An Acoustic Communications and Navigation System for Multiple Platforms. Proceedings of OCEANS 2005 MTS/IEEE, Washington, DC, 17-23 September 2005, 1086-1092.
[4] Parsons, G.S., Peng, S. and Dean, A.G. (2008) An Ultrasonic Communication System for Biotelemetry in Extremely Shallow Waters. Proceedings of the Third ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Test Beds, Experimental Evaluation and Characterization—WuWNeT '08, ACM Press, New York, 99-102.
[5] Sanchez, A., Blanc, S., Yuste, P., Perles, A. and Serrano, J.J. (2012) An Ultra-Low Power and Flexible Acoustic Modem Design to Develop Energy-Efficient Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors, 12, 6837-6856.
[6] Wills, J., Ye, W. and Heidemann, J. (2006) Low-Power Acoustic Modem for Dense Underwater Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks—WUWNet '06, ACM Press, New York, 79-85, 1161055.
[7] Harris, A.F., Stojanovic, M. and Zorzi, M. (2006) When Underwater Acoustic Nodes Should Sleep With One Eye Open. Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks—WUWNet '06, ACM Press, New York, 105-108.
[8] Harris III, A.F., Stojanovic, M. and Zorzi, M. (2009) Idle-Time Energy Savings through Wake-Up Modes in Underwater Acoustic Networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 7, 770-777.
[9] Sanchez, A., Blanc, S., Yuste, P. and Serrano, J. (2011) RFID Based Acoustic Wake-Up System for Underwater Sensor Networks. 2011 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, 873-878.
[10] Schurgers, C., Tsiatsis, V., Ganeriwal, S. and Srivastava, M. (2002) Topology Management for Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Symposium on Mobile ad hoc Networking & Computing—MobiHoc '02, ACM Press, New York, 135-145.
[11] Lin, E.Y., Rabaey, J. and Wolisz, A. (2004) Power-Efficient Rendez-Vous Schemes for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks. 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37577), Vol. 7, 20-24 June 2004, 3769-3776.
[12] Benson, B., Chang, G., Manov, D., Graham, B. and Kastner, R. (2006) Design of a Low-Cost Acoustic Modem for Moored Oceanographic Applications. Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks— WUWNet '06, ACM Press, New York, 71-78.
[13] Benson, B. (2010) Design of a Low-Cost Underwater Acoustic Modem for Short-Range Sensor Networking Applications. PhD Thesis, University of California, San Diego.
[14] Pozar, D. (2004) Microwave Engineering. 3rd Revised Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[15] Vizmuller, P. (1995) RF Design Guide Systems, Circuits and Equations. Artech House, London.
[16] Wilkinson, E.J. (1960) An N-Way Hybrid Power Divider. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory Technology, Vol. 8, 116-118.
[17] HUMMINBIRD. Fishfinder, Depth Finder, GPS Chartplotters, Side Imaging Sonar Technology and Marine Fish Finders.
[18] Sanchez, A., Blanc, S., Yuste, P. and Serrano, J.J. (2011) A Low Cost and High Efficient Acoustic Modem for Underwater Sensor Networks. OCEANS 2011 IEEE—Spain, IEEE, Santander, 1-10.
[19] Linear Technology. Home Page.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.