Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Decade of Post Treatment with Ivermectin in Zainabi and Ririwai Doguwa Local Government Area of Kano State


Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) were carried out to assess the current situation of Onchocerciasis after repetition of annual community directed distribution of Ivermectin in Zainabi and Ririwai of Doguwa Local Government area of Kano State. Certain manifestations, like nodules, leopard skin and blindness, were used to measure the endemicity level in the community. The subjects of 30 - 50 years who are engaged in rural occupation, resident in that community, were examined for the presence of nodules, skin lesion and blindness. The common manifestation in both communities is nodules with 3 (3.40%) and 2 (3.44%). Leopard skin and blindness were found in Zainabi with 2 (2.27%) and 2 (2.27%). The manifestation of Onchocerciasis was found in older age groups of 49 - 70 and 50 - 69 respectively, which give an indication that the disease was eliminated in the community due to mass distribution of Ivermectin in the previously known endemic community. We recommend mass distribution of Mectizan in other identified endemic foci.

Share and Cite:

Sufi, D. and Zainab, T. (2015) Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Decade of Post Treatment with Ivermectin in Zainabi and Ririwai Doguwa Local Government Area of Kano State. Advances in Entomology, 3, 1-5. doi: 10.4236/ae.2015.31001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] World Health Organization (2014) Onchocerciasis. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs374/en/
[2] World Health Organization (2001) Onchocerciasis (River Blindness). The 10th International American Conference on Onchocerciasis, 76, 205-212.
[3] Thylefors, B. (2004) Eliminating Onchocerciasis as a Public Health Problem. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 9, A1-A3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01226.x
[4] Basanez, M.G., Collins, R.C., Porter, C.H., Little, M.P. and Brandling-Bennett, D. (2002) Transmission Intensity and the Patterns of Onchocerca volvulus Infection in Human Communities. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 67, 669-679.
[5] Little, M.P., Breitling, L.P., Basanez, M.-G., Alley, E.S. and Boatin, B.A. (2004) Association between Microfilarial Load and Excess Mortality in Onchocerciasis: An Epidemiological Study. The Lancet, 363, 1514-1521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16151-5
[6] Egbert, P.R., Jacobson, D.W., Fiadoyor, S., Dadzie, P. and Ellingson, K.D. (2005) Onchocerciasis: A Potential Risk Factor for Glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 89, 796-798.
[7] Gopinath, R., Ostrowski, M., Justement, S.J., Fauci, A.S. and Nutman, T.B. (2000) Filarial Infections Increase Susceptibility to Human Imunodeficienciy Virus Infection in Peripheral Blood Mononumclear Cells in Vitro. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 182, 1804-1808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/317623.
[8] Kipp, W., Bamuhiiga, J. and Rubaale, T. (2003) Simulium neavei-Transmitted Onchocerciasis: HIV Infection Increases Severity of Onchocercal Skin Disease in a Small Sample of Patients. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97, 310-311.
[9] Kipp, W., Bamhuhiiga, J., Rubaale, T. and Kabagambe, G. (2005) Adverse Reactions to the Ivermectin Treatment of Onchocerciasis Patients: Does Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Play a Role? Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 99, 395-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/136485905X36262
[10] Del Guidice, P. and Marty, P. (1999) Ivermectin: A New Therapeutic Weapon in Dermatology? Arch Dermatology, 135, 705-706.
[11] Bennett, D.G. (1986) Clinical Pharmacology of Ivermectin. JAMA, 189, 100-104.
[12] Turner, M.J. and Schaeffer, J.M. (1989) Mode of Action of Ivermectin. In: Campbell, W.C., Ed., Ivermectin and Abamectin, Springer-Verlag, New York, 73-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3626-9_5
[13] Burkhart, C.N. and Burkhart, C.G. (1999) Ivermectin: A Few Caveats Are Warranted before Initiating Therapy for Scabies. JAMA Dermatology, 135, 1549-1550.
[14] Campbell, W.C. (1993) Ivermectin, an Antiparasitic Agent. Medicinal Research Reviews, 13, 61-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/med.2610130103
[15] Grant, W. (2000) What Is the Real Target for Ivermectin Resistance Selection in Onchocerca volvulus? Trends in Parasitology, 16, 458-459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4758(00)01804-4
[16] Keddie, E.M., Higazi, T., Boakye, D., Merriweather, A., Wooten, M.C. and Unnasch, T.R. (1999) Onchocerca volvulus: Limited Heterogeneity in the Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes. Experimental Parasitology, 93, 198-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/expr.1999.4450
[17] Ardelli, B.F., Guerriero, S.B. and Prichard, R.K. (2005) Genomic Organization and Effects of Ivermectin Selection on Onchocerca volvulus P-Glycoprotein. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 143, 58-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.05.006
[18] Eng, J.K. and Prichard, R.K. (2005) A Comparison of Genetic Polymorphism in Populations of Onchocerca volvulus from Untreated- and Ivermectin-Treated Patients. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 142, 193-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2005.01.021
[19] NPC (2006) National Population Commission.
[20] Dadzie, K.Y., Remme, J., De Sole, G., Boaitin, B., Alley, E.S. and Samba, E.M. (1991) Onchocerciasis Control by Large Scale Ivermectin Treatment. The Lancet, 337, 1358-1359.
[21] Ngoumoh, P. and Walsh, J.F. (1993) A Manual for Rapid Epidemiological Mapping of Onchocerciasis (REMO). Vol. 93, WHO TDR/TDF/ONCHO, Geneva, 4.
[22] Abdullahi, Y. and Oyeyi, T.I. (2003) Current Status of Onchocerciasis in Tudun Wada and Doguwa Local Government Area of Kano State. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 24, 77-88.
[23] APOC/WHO (1995) Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI): A Practical Guide for Trainers of Community Directed Distributors. WHO, Genera.
[24] WHO (2012) Report. Accelerating Work to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Disease—A Roadmap for Implementation. Vol. 1211, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[25] Onwuliri, C.O.E., Nwoke, B.E.B., Lawal, I.A. and Iwuala, M.O. (1987) Onchocerciasis in Plateau State of Nigeria. II. The Prevalence among Residents along the Assob River Area. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 81, 49- 52.
[26] Gemude, E.I. and Dipeolu, O.O. (1983) Onchocerciasis in Benue State of State of Nigeria. Prevalence of the Disease among the Tivs Living in Gwanda Local Government Area. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 77, 513- 516.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.