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Reversion of Incommensurate Modulation in Cubic Lazurite: Example of Reversible Forced Equilibrium?

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DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.512065    2,118 Downloads   2,516 Views  

ABSTRACT

The sample of cubic lazurite, collected in the Baikal region, with incommensurately 3D modulated (ITM) structure has been studied by the method of high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. At short time of annealing in high-temperature diffraction experiment the modulation recovery proceeds during cooling down the sample to room temperature. The identity of the period of both initial and recovered modulation demonstrates that the system has a structural memory. The acquired results are interpreted through comparison of thermal behavior of lazurite, sodalite and quartz structures. It is supposed that two kinetically different and thermally activated processes proceed under heating: 1) reversible framework expansion due to Si-O-Al angle increase, and 2) equalizing of periodic local distortions via the diffusion-controlled transfer of cage ions between adjacent subcells. The second process seems to be much slower than the first one, especially at lower temperatures. With increasing temperature, both processes are activated. However, the framework expands more rapidly than the cage clusters migrate, and the periodic distortions of the framework are aligned. Under lower temperatures, the framework shrinks and again accommodates to the configuration of cage cations (clusters), which may be changed at high temperature and sufficient time or may not at lower temperature, short time, unfavorable SO2 fugacity values. In the first case the modulation disappears entirely, while in the second case it arises again. The probable reason for ITM formation is the balance of counteracting energetic terms: the elastic strain energy of structure deformation and the energy of cluster ordering providing the state of forced equilibrium. The excess free energy due to structure distortion is compensated by the increment associated with the cluster ordering process. However, no significant variations in sulphur anion speciation for different degrees of modulation retention were observed by XPS S 2p. This may be due to the ordering of Na- and Ca-containing clusters rather than the clusters with different sulphur species. ITM reversion is considered as an example of reversible forced equilibrium with completely reproducible forcing factor.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Tauson, V. , Sapozhnikov, A. , Kaneva, E. and Lipko, S. (2014) Reversion of Incommensurate Modulation in Cubic Lazurite: Example of Reversible Forced Equilibrium?. Natural Resources, 5, 761-771. doi: 10.4236/nr.2014.512065.

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