Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential of Some Indigenous Functional Food-Plants Used in the O.R. Tambo District Municipality of South Africa


Antimicrobial resistance is a major problem in the management of infectious diseases. African indigenous functional food-plants such as Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum may constitute important sources of phytochemical constituents for the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds against infectious organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial pro- perties of Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum-leaves used as functional food-plants in the O.R. Tambo district municipality of South Africa. Organic and aqueous solvent-extracts of C. album and S. nigrum were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC127853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), Escherichia coli (25922) and Enterococcus faecalis (51299) using standard microbiological techniques. Ciprofloxacin was included in all the experimental runs as positive control antibiotic. The aqueous extracts of both plants were the most active with zones of inhibition diameters ranging from 0 mm - 20 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.63 mg/mL - 10 mg/mL. The positive control antibiotic was highly active with zones of inhibition diameters ranging from 17 mm - 31 mm and MIC50 values from 0.0003 mg/mL - 0.0005mg/mL for all the bacteria tested. Both extracts were bactericidal with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges from 2.5mg/mL - 20mg/mL. From the results, it can be concluded that both plants possess compounds with antimicrobial properties, thus validating scientifically their use in traditional medicine. However, more studies to document the respective plant-principles responsible for antimicrobial activity of these plants would shed more light on their functional properties.

Share and Cite:

Njume, C. , Gqaza, B. , George, G. and Goduka, N. (2014) Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential of Some Indigenous Functional Food-Plants Used in the O.R. Tambo District Municipality of South Africa. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 34-40. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2014.26006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Falagas, M.E., Karageorgopoulos, D.E., Leptidis, J. and Korbila, I.P. (2013) MRSA in Africa: Filing the Global Map of Antimicrobial Resistance. PLoS One, 8, e68024.
[2] Matsuura, G.T., Pharm, D. and Barg, N. (2013) Update on the Antimicrobial Management of Foot Infections in Patients with Diabetes. Clinical Diabetes, 31, 59-65.
[3] Balsalobre, L.C., Dropa, M. and Matte, M.H. (2014) An Overview of Antimicrobial Resistance and Its Public Health Significance. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45, 1-5.
[4] Gupta, K., Hooton, T.M. and Stamm, W.E. (2001) Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance and the Management of Uncomplicated Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections. Annals of Internal Medicine, 135, 45-50.
[5] Tamma, P.D., Cosgrove, S.E. and Maragakis, L.L. (2012) Combination Therapy for Treatment of Infections with Gram Negative Bacteria. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 25, 450-470.
[6] Mittal, R., Aggarwal, S., Sharma, S., Chhibber, S. and Harjai, K. (2009) Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Minireview. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 2, 101-111.
[7] Canizalez-Roman, A., Gonzalez-Nunez, E., Vidal. J.E., Flo-res-Villasenor, H. and Leon-Sicairos, N. (2013) Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistant Profiles of Diarrheagenic Es-cherichia coli Strains Isolated from Food Items in North Western Mexico. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 164, 36-45.
[8] Sood, S., Malhotra, M., Das, B.K. and Kapil, A. (2008) Enterococcal Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 128, 111-121.
[9] Oli, A.K., Sungar, R., Shivshetty, N., Hosamani, R. and Rivansiddappa, K.C. (2012) A Study of Scanning Electron Microscopy of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis from Clinical Isolates. Advances in Micro-biology, 2, 93-97.
[10] Jeon, Y.L., Yang, J.J., Kim, M.J., Lim, G., Cho, S.Y., Park, T.S., Suh, J.T., Park, Y.H., Lee, M.S., Kim, S.C. and Lee, H.J. (2012) Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis Infection in a Patient with oesophageal Perforation. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 61, 1766-1769.
[11] Njume, C., Goduka, N.I. and George G. (2014) Indigenous Leafy Vegetables (imifino, morogo, muhuro) in South Africa: A Rich and Unexplored Source of Nutrients and Antioxidants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 13, 1933-1942.
[12] Gqaza, B.M., Njume, C., Goduka, N.I. and George, G. (2013a) Nutritional Assessment of Chenopodium album L. (Imbikicane) Young Shoots and Mature Plant-Leaves Consumed in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental En-gineering, 27-28 July, Moscow, Russia. 53, 97-102.
[13] Gqaza, M.B., Njume, C., Goduka, I.N. and Grace, G. (2013b) The Proximate Composition of S. nigrum Plant-Leaves Consumed in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, 27-28 July, Moscow, Russia. 53, 103-106.
[14] Yadav, N., Vasudeva, N., Singh, S. and Sharma, S.K. (2007) Medicinal Properties of Genus Cheno-podium Linn. Natural Product Radiance, 6, 131-134.
[15] Njume, C., Afolayan, A.J. and Ndip, R.N. (2011) Diversity of Plants Used in the Treatment of Helicobacter pylori-Associated Morbidities in the Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5, 3146-3151.
[16] Castillo-Juárez, I., González, V., Aime-Aguilar, H., Martínez, G., Linares, E., Bye, R. and Romero, I. (2009) Anti- Helicobacter pylori Activity of Plants Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for Gastrointestinal Disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122, 402-405.
[17] Boyanova, L., Gergova, G., Nikolov, R., Derejian, S., Lazarova, E., Katsarov, N., Mitov, I. and Krastev, Z. (2005) Activity of Bulgarian Propolis against 94 Helicobacter pylori Strains in Vitro by Agar-Well Diffusion, Agar Dilution and Disc Diffusion Methods. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 54, 481-483.
[18] Bonacorsi, C., Raddi, M.S.G., Iracilda, Z.C., Sannomiya, M. and Vilegas, W. (2009) Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity and Immunostimulatory Effect of Extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae). Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 9, 1472-6882.
[19] Nethathe, B.B. and Ndip, R.N. (2011) Bioactivity of Hydnora africana on Selected Bacteria Pathogens: Preliminary Phytochemical Screening. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5, 2820-2826.
[20] Madduluri, S., Rao, K.B. and Sitaram, B. (2013) In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Five Indigenous Plants Extracts against Five Bacteria Pathogens of Humans. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5, 679-684.
[21] Cock, I. (2007) Antibacterial Activity of Selected Australian Native Plant Extracts. The Internet Journal of Microbiology, 4, 76-81.
[22] Silhavy, T.J., Kahne, D. and Walker, S. (2010) The Bacterial Cell Envelope. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 2, 1-17.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.