Extending the Role of Pharmacists in Patient Care: Are Pharmacists in Developing Nations Ready to Change?


Patient care in a community is becoming critical due to change in the impact of diseases on health. The provision of pharmaceutical care in a community will bring in positive changes in health care delivery. However, the pharmacist in developing countries has remained obscure in direct health- care of the patient. The main aim of this article is to reinforce the concept that there is a need to strengthen the basic pharmaceutical system in the Arab and African world before implementing any advanced clinical pharmacy or pharmaceutical care services to our communities. This article gives a good insight of where pharmacy practice in Arab, African and other developing countries globally stand in comparison to developed nations. A trend is apparent towards increased emphasis on clinical pharmacy practice. Country-specific pharmacy education and practice are discussed, analyzing the progress and opportunities available to pharmacy graduates. In addition, the future of pharmacy practice and clinical roles of hospital and community pharmacists were reviewed. It was realized that pharmacy practice and progress in many of the Arab and African countries were a mirror image of the status of the country itself. A new vision for the future of pharmacy practice needs to be considered and reorientation of pharmacy services in the existing system is needed. There should be a professional approach to speed up the rise towards practicing clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical profession. This is achieved by interviewing patients, documenting their health details and educating them on methods of improving their health, including proper medication usage and lifestyle modification. Furthermore, colleges of pharmacy need to revise and update their curricula to accommodate the progressively increasing development in the pharmaceutical education and the evolving new roles of practicing pharmacists in their community.

Share and Cite:

Abduelkarem, A. (2014) Extending the Role of Pharmacists in Patient Care: Are Pharmacists in Developing Nations Ready to Change?. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 5, 865-875. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.59097.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO (2013) The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care Now More than Ever.
[2] Dameh, M. (2009) Pharmacy in the United Arab Emirates. Southern Med Review, 2, 15-18.
[3] Bawazir, S.A. (1992) Prescribing Patterns at Community Pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 6, 222-224.
[4] Kheir, N., Zaidan, M., Younes, H., El Hajj, M. and Wilbur Ka Jewesson, P.J. (2009) Pharmacy Education and Practice in 13 Middle Eastern Countries. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72, 133.
[5] Parmar, S. (2008) Community Pharmacy Practice in the United States and Kenya: Comparision.
[6] Goel, P., Ross-Dengan, D., Berman, P. and Soumerai, S. (1996) Retail Pharmacies in Developing Countries: A Behavior and Intervention Framework. Social Science Medicine, 42, 115-1161.
[7] Hepler, C.D. and Strand, L.M. (1990) Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 47, 533-543.
[8] Van Mil, J.W.F., De Boer, W.O. and Tromp, T.H.F.J. (2001) European Barriers to the Implementation of Pharmaceutical Care. IJPP, 9, 163-168.
[9] Savage, I.T. (1998) Practice Research: An International Update. IJPP, 6, 176-178.
[10] Blenkinsopp, J. (2004) Out of the Dispensary and into the Pharmacy POM-to-P Switching. PJ, 272, 508-509.
[11] Anonymous (2010) UKCPA Statement on Pharmaceutical Care.
[12] Anonymous (2009) Annual Statistical Report. The Office of the Inspector General for 2009.
[13] Abrika, O.S., Hassali, M.A. and Abduelkarem, A.R. (2012) Importance of Social Pharmacy Education in Libyan Pharmacy Schools: Perspectives from Pharmacy Practitioners. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 9, 1-5.
[14] Clark, N. (2006) Education in Tunisia. http://www.wes.org/ewenr/06apr/practical_tunisia.htm
[15] (2013) Faculty of Pharmacy, Monastair, Tunisia. http://www.fphm.rnu.tn/
[16] Hepler, C.D. and Srand, L.M. (1990) Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 47, 533-543.
[17] Knidiri, M. (2009) Women Status in the Mediterranean: Their Rights and Sustainable Development. Options Méditerranéennes, 87, 29-32.
[18] El-Awady, E.E., Moss, S., Mottram, D. and O’Donnell, J. (2006) Student Perspectives on Pharmacy Curriculum and Instruction in Egyptian Schools. The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70, Article No. 09.
[19] (2014) 2010 Statistics, Ministry of Health and Population of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.
[20] Al-Wazaify, M., Albsoul-Younesl, A., Matowe, L. and Al-Omran, O.A. (2006) Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70, Article No. 18.
[21] (2013) How Can I Get My Pharmacy MOH License?
[22] Anonymous (2010) University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. http://www.uonbi.ac.ke/
[23] Pastakia, et al. (2013) Collaborative Partnership for Clinical Pharmacy Services in Kenya.
[24] Anonymous (2010) The South African Pharmacy Council. http://www.pharmcouncil.co.za/
[25] Allan, L. (2006) Competing Interests and Change within the Pharmacy Education System in South Africa. Master’s Thesis, Rhodes University. http://eprints.ru.ac.za/297/
[26] Anonymous (2010) Pharmacy Council of Nigeria. http://pcn.gov.ng/
[27] Udeogaranya, P.O., et al. (2009) Assessment of Attitudes of University of Nigeria Pharmacy Students toward Pharmaceutical Care. Pharmacy Practice (Internet), 7, 145-149.
[28] Kongkaew, C., Noyce, P.R. and Ashcroft, D.M. (2002) Hospital Admissions Associated with Adverse Drug Reactions: A Systematic Review of Prospective Observational Studies. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 42, 1017-1025.
[29] Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (2001) Diabetes Task Force: Practice Guidance for Community Pharmacists on the Care of People with Diabetes. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London.
[30] Farris, K.B. and Kirking, D.M. (1993) Assessing the Quality of Pharmaceutical Care. I. One Perspective of Quality. Annal of Phamracotherapy, 27, 68-73.
[31] Truter, D.I. (1998) An Investigation into Antidiabetic Medication Prescribing in South Africa. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 23, 417-422.
[32] Kielgast, P.J. (1997) The 21st Century Pharmacist. International Pharmacy, 11, 30.
[33] Posey, L.M. (2003) Providing That Pharmaceutical Care Makes a Difference in Community Pharmacy. Journal of American Pharmacists Association, 24, 136-139.
[34] Pickard, A.S., Johnson, J.A. and Farris, K. (1999) The Impact of Pharmacist Intervention on Health-Related Quality of Life. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 33, 1167-1172.
[35] Schapansky, L.M. and Johnson, J.A. (2000) Pharmacists’ Attitudes toward Diabetes. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 40, 371-377.
[36] Abasaeed, A., Vlcek, J., Abuelkhair, M. and Kubena, A. (2009) Self-Medication with Antibiotics by the Community of Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirate. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 3, 491-497.
[37] Hassell, K., Noyce, P.R. and Rogers, A. (1999) A Review of Factors That Influence the Use of Community Pharmacies as a Primary Health Care Resource. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 7, 51-59.
[38] Bellingham, C. (2004) Preparing PCTs for the New Contract. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 273, 376.
[39] Bond, C.M., Sinclair, H.K., Winfield, A.J. and Taylor, R.J. (1993) Community Pharmacist’s Attitudes to Their Advice Giving Role and Deregulation of Medicines. In-ternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2, 26-30.
[40] Ferlie, E. (1995) Adapt to Survive. Pharmaceutical Journal, 255, 843-846.
[41] Bradley, C.P., Taylor, R.J. and Blenkinsopp, A. (1997) Developing Prescribing in Primary Care. British Medical Journal, 314, 744-747.
[42] Bayliss, E. and Rutter, P. (2004) General Practitioners’ Views on Recent and Proposed Medicine Switches from POM to P. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 273, 819-821.
[43] Bleiker, P. and Lewis, A. (1998) Extending the Role of Community Pharmacists: The Views of GPs. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 6, 140-144.
[44] Timothy, M.E. (2005) Pharmaceutical Care Reduces Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28, 771-776.
[45] Buisson, J. (2003) Pharmacy Prepares for the Leap Year. Pharmaceutical Journal, 271, 836.
[46] Taylor, B. (2004) Why Choice Is the Good News for 2004? Pharmaceutical Journal, 272, 57.
[47] Trikic, A. (2004) Supplementary Prescribing Training: The CPPE E-Learning Programme. Pharmaceutical Journal, 272, 645-646.
[48] Anonymous (2000) Position Paper on Critical Care Pharmacy Services. Pharmacotherapy, 20, 1400-1406.
[49] Hawksworth, G.M. and Chrystyn, H. (1998) Clinical Pharmacy in Primary Care. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46, 415-420.
[50] Kongkaew, C., Noyce, P.R. and Ashcroft, D.M. (2008) Hospital Admissions Associated with Adverse Drug Reactions: A Systematic Review of Prospective Observational Studies. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 42, 1017-1025.
[51] Schneider, P.J. and Gift, M. (1996) Cost of Medication Errors. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 10, S1-S11.
[52] Harris, C.M. and Dajda, R. (1996) The Scale of Repeat Prescribing. British Journal of General Practice, 46, 649-653.
[53] Zermansky, A. (1996) Who Controls Repeats? British Journal of General Practice, 46, 643-647.
[54] Caselnova, D.A., Dzierba, S.H., O’Neill, M.S., Dillon, K.R. and Farley, P.C. (1985) Implementing Clinical Pharmacy Services in an Outpatient Oncology Clinic. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 42, 1348-1352.
[55] Lesar, T.S., Briceland, L. and Stein, D.S. (1997) Factors Related to Errors in Medication Prescribing. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 312-317.
[56] Branch, C.E., Bovvden, S., Roberts, D.E., Spencer, M.G. and Luscombe, D.K. (1993) Is There a Need for Improved Pharmacy Services to the Operating Theatre. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 18, 179-182.
[57] Anonymous (2006) UKCPA to Consult on New Mission Statement. Hospital Pharmacist, 13, 387.
[58] National Health Service (2000) Pharmacy in the Future: Implementing the NHS Plan. A Programme for Pharmacy in the National Health Service. Department of Health, London.
[59] Baines, D. and Hale, C. (2004) How Should Community Pharmacists Be Paid under the New Contract? The Pharmaceutical Journal, 273, 119-120.
[60] Anonymous (2004) PSNC Agrees Funding for New Pharmacy Contract. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 273, 277.
[61] Anonymous (2000) American College of Clinical Pharmacy. ACCP White Paper: A Vision of Pharmacy’s Future Roles, Responsibilities, and Manpower Needs in the United States. Pharmacotherapy, 20, 991-1022.
[62] Nau, D.P. and Brushwood, D.B. (1998) State Pharmacy Regulators’ Opinions on Regulating Pharmaceutical Care Outcomes. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 32, 642-647.
[63] Cipolle, R.J., Strand, L.M. and Morley, P.C. (1998) Pharmaceutical Care. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, London.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.