Quito Municipal Schools—Cohort Study: Self-Perception of Body Image and Factors Related with It


Self-perception of body image is one factor to be considered when planning and performing preventive initiatives and interventions in childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyse self-perception of body image in relation to body-mass index, physical inactivity, not eating breakfast, dieting, smoking and alcohol consumption or toxic habits. Materials and Methods: using data from the “Quito municipal schools” cohort study 6964 students aged from 9 to 17 years were described using a multivariate log linear model of the multidimensional table generated by the variables. A logistic regression model was then fitted to assess associations via OR. Results: 8.2% perceived themselves as overweight. Of those subjects overweight according to their BMI, 21.8% perceived themselves as such, while among those not overweight according to BMI, 96.8% considered themselves as slim or of normal weight. Among students who were dieting, 15.1% perceived themselves as overweight. Among those pupils who perceived themselves has having excess weight, the most common reasons for dieting were: lose weight (56.8%), be healthier (22.6%), and maintain current weight (8.4%). Self-perception of excess weight interacts with excess weight (ORadjusted 8.42; CI95% 6.92-10.25), no breakfast (ORadjusted 2.83; CI95% 2.13-3.77), diet (ORadjusted 2.38; CI95% 1.95-2.89), and with all the variables except toxic habits (ORadjusted 1.01; CI95% 0.78 a 1.29). Conclusion: Interventions to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence ought to take account of specific determinants within the personal, behavioural and socio-environmental factors, such as the promotion of a positive body image.

Share and Cite:

Romero-Sandoval, N. , Flores, O. , Egas, C. , Villamar, G. , Larrea, Z. , Cruz, M. , Icaza, L. and Martín, M. (2014) Quito Municipal Schools—Cohort Study: Self-Perception of Body Image and Factors Related with It. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 4, 122-128. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.43017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bibiloni, M.D.M., Pons, A. and Tur, J.A. (2013). Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review. ISRN Obesity, 2013, ArticleID: 392747.
[2] Rivera, J.á., de Cossío, T.G., Pedraza, L.S., Aburto, T.C., Sánchez, T.G. and Martorell, R. (2014). Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity in Latin America: A Systematic Review. The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2, 321-332.
[3] Cowgill, B.O., Chung, P.J., Thompson, L.R., Elijah, J., Lamb, S., Garcia, V.P. and Bastani, R. (2014). Parents’ Views on Engaging Families of Middle School Students in Obesity Prevention and Control in a Multiethnic Population. Preventing Chronic Disease, 11, e54.
[4] Romero-Sandoval, N., Ruiz, V., Quizanga, J., Recalde, R., Anchali, E., Falconí, J., … Martín, M. (2012). “Quito Municipal Schools” Cohort Study: Baseline Results. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 2, 70-74.
[5] Casini, V., Augspach, L. and Guerra, L. (2008). Asociación entre la autopercepción de la imagen corporal y el estado nutricional en escolares de 6 a 14 anos. Revista Electrónica de Ciencias Aplicadas Al Deporte, 1.
[6] Amaya-Hernández, A., Alvarez-Rayón, G.L. and Mancilla-Díaz, J.M. (2010). Insatisfacción corporal en interacción con autoestima, influencia de pares y dieta restrictiva: Una revisión/Body dissatisfaction in interaction with self-esteem, peer influence and dietary restraint: A systematic review. Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios/Mexican Journal of Eating Disorders, 1, 76-89.
[7] Onis, M. de, Onyango, A.W., Borghi, E., Siyam, A., Nishida, C. and Siekmann, J. (2007). Development of a WHO Growth Reference for School-Aged Children and Adolescents. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85, 660-667.
[8] Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Espana. (2006). Encuesta Nacional de Salud. Cuestionario de Menores. (Personas de 0 a 15 anos).
[9] Warren, C.W., Riley, L., Asma, S., Eriksen, M. P., Green, L., Blanton, C., … Yach, D. (2000). Tobacco Use by Youth: a Surveillance Report from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey Project. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 868-876.
[10] Godard, C., Rodríguez, M. del P., Díaz, N., Lera, L., Salazar, G. and Burrows, R. (2008). Valor de un test clínico para evaluar actividad física en ninos. Revista Médica de Chile, 136, 1155-1162.
[11] Stunkard, A.J., Sorensen, T.I.A., Hanis, C., Teasdale, T.W., Chakraborty, R., Schull, W.J. and Schulsinger, F. (1986). An Adoption Study of Human Obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 193-198.
[12] Gómez-Peresmitré, G., Saucedo-Molina, T. and Unikel, C. (2001). Imagen corporal en los trastornos de la alimentación: La Psicología Social en el campo de la salud. In Psicología social; Investigación y aplicaciones en México. México: México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
[13] Cortes, M.G., Meireles, A.L., Friche, A.A. de L., Caiaffa, W.T. and Xavier, C.C. (2013). [Silhouette Scales and Body Satisfaction in Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review]. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 29, 427-444.
[14] Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E., Aparicio, A., López-Sobaler, A.M. and Ortega, R.M. (2009). Percepción del peso corporal y medidas adoptadas para su control en población espanola. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 24, 580-587.
[15] Romero-Sandoval, N., Guanopatin, A., Gallegos, G., Collaguazo, A., Sáenz, P., Latorre, V., … Martín, M. (2013). Breakfast Habits and Family Structure Associated with Overweight and Obesity in General Basic Students, Ecuador. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 3, 128-139.
[16] Madrigal-Fritsch, H., Irala-Estévez, J. de, Martínez-González, M.A., Kearney, J., Gibney, M. and Martínez-Hernández, J.A. (1999). Percepción de la imagen corporal como aproximación cualitativa al estado de nutrición. Salud Pública de México, 41, 479-486.
[17] Pérez Rodríguez, U. (2013). La percepción e insatisfacción corporal en el alumnado de Educación Secundaria de la ciudad de Jaén. Revista de Investigación en Educación, 11.
[18] Mori, K., Sekine, M., Yamagami, T. and Kagamimori, S. (2009). Relationship between Body Image and Lifestyle Factors in Japanese Adolescent Girls. Pediatrics International, 51, 507-513.
[19] Arora, M., Nazar, G.P., Gupta, V.K., Perry, C.L., Reddy, K.S. and Stigler, M.H. (2012). Association of Breakfast Intake with Obesity, Dietary and Physical Activity Behavior among Urban School-Aged Adolescents in Delhi, India: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study. BMC Public Health, 12, 881.
[20] Legleye, S., Beck, F., Spilka, S., Chau, N. (2014) Correction of Body-Mass Index Using Body-Shape Perception and Socioeconomic Status in Adolescent Self-Report Surveys. PLoS ONE, 9, Article ID: e96768.
[21] Curtin, C., Pagoto, S. and Mick, E. (2013) The Association between ADHD and Eating Disorders/Pathology in Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 3, 193-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojepi.2013.34028
[22] Wall, M., Larson, N., Haines, J. and Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2013) Personal, Behavioral and Socio-Environmental Predictors of Overweight Incidence in Young Adults: 10-yr Longitudinal Findings. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 37.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.