Analyses of Physical and Chemical Parameters in Surface Waters nearby a Cement Factory in North Central, Nigeria


Water samples were collected from three stations along the water course of Oinyi River, Kogi State, Nigeria, bi-monthly for 12 months (October 2010 to September 2011). A total of 16 physical and chemical parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, flow velocity, depth, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, ammonia, pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and colour) were analyzed and results showed that pH (6.8 to 7.26), conductivity (106.0 to 211.7 μS/cm), colour (3.87 ± 0.159 Pt.Co), turbidity (14 - 22.7 NTU), total suspended solids (45 - 54 mg/l), biochemical oxygen demand (2.05 - 2.89 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (17.19 ± 0.15 mg/l), temperature (24°C to 27°C) and depth (0.23 to 0.35 m) were significantly different across the different stations and between the months. However, total dissolved solids (52.7 to 108.8 mg/l), dissolved oxygen (6.02 to 7.01 mg/l), ammonia (0.00 to 0.02 mg·l-1), nitrite (0.01 - 0.09 mg·l-1), nitrate (0.045 ± 0.006 mg·l-1), phosphate (0.2 to 2.05 mg·l-1) and flow velocity (0.1 to 0.35 m·s-1) showed variations within the sampling stations. Maximum conductivity (211.7 μS/cm), colour (5.83 Pt.Co), turbidity (22.7 NTU), total suspended solids (54 mg/l), total dissolved solids (108.8 mg/l), nitrite (0.09 mg/l) and nitrate (0.006 mg/l) values were recorded at station 2 which is the discharge point of industrial waste. River water did show significant pollutional increase at the effluent impacted site during the present study. Dissolved oxygen showed direct relation with temperature, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand. The non-stop and continuous discharges of cement waste water into the river lessened water quality with significant or corresponding effect on the biota of the studied area, thus paving way for clear assertion that the water quality deterioration was as a result of the impacts of the waste water from cement industry.

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Meme, F. , Arimoro, F. and Nwadukwe, F. (2014) Analyses of Physical and Chemical Parameters in Surface Waters nearby a Cement Factory in North Central, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 826-834. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.510085.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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