Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) with 2,4-D Followed by Pre-Emergence or Post-Emergence Herbicides in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max L.)


Control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed is a challenge, particularly for soybean growers, because of limited effective post-emergence (POST) herbicide options. Many soybean growers in no-till production systems use 2,4-D in burndown application for control of broadleaf weeds, including giant ragweed. Field experiments were conducted at David City, NE, in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate 2,4-D followed by PRE or POST herbicide programs for control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Results suggested that burndown application of 2,4-D or saflufenacil plus imazethapyr resulted in 89 to 99% control of giant ragweed at 21 days after treatment. Burndown-only treatments of S-metolachlor plus metribuzin or sulfentrazone plus cloransulam resulted in poor control (≤65%) of giant ragweed and reduced soybean yield (≤ 577 kg·ha-1). Burndown application of 2,4-D followed by saflufenacil plus imazethapyr, S-metolachlor plus metribuzin, or sulfentrazone plus cloransulam applied pre-emergence (PRE) or cloransulam, chlorimuron, fomesafen, imazethapyr, or lactofen in tank-mixtures with acetochlor applied POST resulted in 87% to 99% giant ragweed control, reduced density to ≤7 plants m-2, and resulted in soybean yield from 2519 to 3823 kg·ha-1. There was no difference among and between 2,4-D followed by PRE or POST herbicides for giant ragweed control, density, or soybean yield, indicating all the two pass herbicide programs were effective. It is concluded that glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed can be effectively controlled in soybean by including 2,4-D in burndown program followed by PRE or POST herbicides tested in this study.

Share and Cite:

Jhala, A. , Sandell, L. and Kruger, G. (2014) Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) with 2,4-D Followed by Pre-Emergence or Post-Emergence Herbicides in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2289-2297. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515243.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] USDA (US Department of Agriculture) (2012) Economic Research Service. Oil Crops Outlooks.
[2] Green, J.M. (2009) Evolution of Glyphosate-Resistant Crop Technology. Weed Science, 57, 108-117.
[3] USDA-NASS (U.S. Department of Agriculture—National Agricultural Statistics Service) (2013) Prospective Plantings 2012. USDA-NASS.
[4] Duke, S.O. (2005) Taking Stock of Herbicide-Resistant Crops Ten Years after Introduction. Pest Management Science, 61, 211-218.
[5] Givens, W.A., Shaw, D.R., Kruger, G.R., Young, B.G., Wilson, R.G., Wilcut, J.W., Jordan, D.L. and Weller, S.C. (2009) Survey of Tillage Trends Following the Adoption of Glyphosate-Resistant Crops. Weed Technology, 23, 162-166.
[6] Green, J.M. (2012) The Benefits of Herbicide-Resistant Crops. Pest Management Science, 68, 1323-1331.
[7] Owen, M.D.K. and Zelaya, I.A. (2005) Herbicide-Resistance Crops and Weed Resistance to Herbicides. Pest Management Science, 61, 301-311.
[8] Heap, I.M. (2013) International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds.
[9] Bassett, I.J. and Crompton, C.W. (1982) The Biology of Canadian Weeds.: 55.: Ambrosia trifida L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 62, 1003-1010.
[10] Johnson, B.M., Loux, M., Nordby, D., Sprague, C., Nice, G., Westhoven, A. and Stachler, J. (2006) Biology and Management of Giant Ragweed. Purdue Extension Publication, GWC-12.
[11] Abul-Fatih, H.A. and Bazzaz, F.A. (1979) The Biology of (Ambrosia trifida). II. Germination, Emergence, Growth and Survival. New Phytolologist, 83, 817-827.
[12] Beckie, H.J. (2006) Herbicide Resistant Weeds: Management Tactics and Practices. Weed Technology, 20, 793-814.
[13] Schultz, M.E., Schmitzer, P.R., Alexander, A.L. and Dorich, R.A. (2000) Identification and Management of Resistance to ALS Inhibiting Herbicides in Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemissifolia). Abstracts of Weed Science Society of America, 40, 42.
[14] Stachler, J.M. and Loux, M.M. (2005) Response of a Giant Ragweed Population to Glyphosate. Proceedings of North Central Weed Science Society, 60, 199.
[15] Norsworhty, J.K., Jha, P., Steckel, L.E. and Scott, R.C. (2010) Confirmation and Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) in Tennessee. Weed Technology, 24, 64-70.
[16] Abul-Fatih, H.A. and Bazzaz, F.A. (1979) The Biology of (Ambrosia trifida). I. Influence of Species Removal on the Organization of Plant Community. New Phytologist, 83, 813-816.
[17] Stoller, E.W. and Wax, L.M. (1973) Periodicity of Germination and Emergence of Some Annual Weeds. Weed Science, 21, 574-580.
[18] Harrison, S.K., Regnier, E.E., Schmoll, J.T. and Webb, J.E. (2001) Competition and Fecundity of Giant Ragweed in Corn. Weed Science, 49, 224-229.[0224:CAFOGR]2.0.CO;2
[19] Steckel, L.E. (2007) Giant Ragweed. University of Tennessee, Fact Sheet, W119.
[20] Davis, V.M., Gibson, K.D. and Johnson, W.G. (2008) A Field Survey to Determine Distribution and Frequency of Glyphosate-Resistant Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in Indiana. Weed Technology, 22, 331-338.
[21] Geier, P.W., Stahlman, P.W. and Charvat, L.D. (2009) Dose Response of Five Broadleaf Weeds to Saflufenacil. Weed Technology, 23, 313-316.
[22] Owen, L.N., Mueller, T.C., Main, C.L., Bond, J. and Steckel, L.E. (2011) Evaluating Rates and Application Timings of Saflufenacil for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Prior to Planting No-Till Cotton. Weed Technology, 25, 1-5.
[23] Anonymous (2013) OpTillTM Herbicide Product Label. BASF Publication, No. NVA 2010-04-323-0109, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, BASF, 17.
[24] Thompson, M.A., Steckel, L.E., Ellis, A.T. and Mueller, T.C. (2007) Soybean Tolerance to Early Preplant Applications of 2,4-D Ester, 2,4-D Amine, and Dicamba. Weed Technology, 21, 882-885.
[25] Baysinger, J.A. and Sims, B.D. (1992) Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Control in Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 6, 13-18.
[26] Franey, R.J. and Hart, S.E. (1999) Timing of Application of Cloransulam for Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Control in Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 13, 825-828.
[27] Norsworthy, J.K., Riar, D., Jha, P. and Scott, R.C. (2011) Confirmation, Control and Physiology of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) in Arkansas. Weed Technology, 25, 430-435.
[28] Barnett, K.A., Mueller, T.C. and Steckel, L.E. (2013) Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Control with Glufosinate or Fomesafen Combined with Growth Regulator Herbicides. Weed Technology, 27, 454-458.
[29] Robinson, A.P., Simpson, D.M. and Johnson, W.G. (2012) Summer Annual Weed Control with 2,4-D and Glyphosate. Weed Technology, 26, 657-660.
[30] Vink, J.P., Soltani, N., Robinson, D.E., Tardif, F.J., Lawton, M.B. and Sikkema, P.K. (2012) Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Control in Dicamba-Tolerant Soybean. Weed Technology, 26, 422-428.
[31] Craigmyle, B.D., Ellis, J.M. and Bradley, K.W. (2013) Influence of Weed Height and Glufosinate Plus 2,4-D Combinations on Weed Control in Soybean with Resistance to 2.4-D. Weed Technology, 27, 271-280.
[32] Craigmyle, B.D., Ellis, J.M. and Bradley, K.W. (2013) Influence of Herbicide Program on Weed Management in Soybean with Resistance to Glufosinate and 2,4-D. Weed Technology, 27, 78-84.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.