Effect of TiO2 Crystallite Diameter on Photocatalytic Water Splitting Rate


The effect of (Pt-loaded)TiO2 crystallite diameter (i.e. Scherrer size) on the photocatalytic water splitting rate was investigated. (Pt-loaded)TiO2 powders with a wide range of crystallite diameters from about 16 to 45 nm with a blank region between about 23 and 41 nm were prepared by various annealing processes from an identical TiO2 powder. Water splitting experiments with these powders were carried out with methanol as an oxidizing sacrificial agent. It was found that the photocatalytic water splitting rate was sensitively affected by the crystallite diameter of the (Pt-loaded)TiO2 powder. More concretely, similar steep improvements of photocatalytic water splitting rates from around 15 and a little over 2 to about 30 μmol·m-2hr-1 were obtained in the two (Pt-loaded)TiO2 crystallite diameters ranging from 16 to 23 and from 41 to 45 nm, respectively.

Share and Cite:

Banno, H. , Kariya, B. , Isu, N. , Ogawa, M. , Miwa, S. , Sawada, K. , Tsuge, J. , Imaizumi, S. , Kato, H. , Tokutake, K. and Deguchi, S. (2014) Effect of TiO2 Crystallite Diameter on Photocatalytic Water Splitting Rate. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 4, 87-94. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2014.42013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Matsuoka, M., Kitano, M., Takeuchi, M., Tsujimaru, K., Anpo, M. and Thomas, J.M. (2007) Photocatalysis for New Energy Production: Recent Advances in Photocatalytic Water Splitting Reactions for Hydrogen Production. Catalysis Today, 122, 51-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2007.01.042
[2] Nosaka, A.Y., Nishino, J., Fujiwara, T., Ikegami, T., Yagi H., Akutsu, H. and Nosaka, Y. (2006) Effects of Thermal Treatments on the Recovery of Adsorbed Water and Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Photocatalytic Systems. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 110, 8380-8385.
[3] Strataki, N., Bekiar, V., Kondarides, D.I. and Lianos, P. (2007) Hydrogen Production by Photocatalytic Alcohol Reforming Employing Highly Efficient Nanocrystalline Titania Films. Applied Catalysis B, 77, 184-189.
[4] Deguchi, S., Shibata, N., Takeichi, T., Furukawa, Y. and Isu, N. (2010) Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Aqueous Solution of Various Oxidizing Sacrifice Agents. Journal of the Japan Petroleum Institute, 53, 95-100.
[5] Deguchi, S., Takeichi, T., Shimasaki, S., Ogawa, M. and Isu, N. (2011) Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water with Nonfood Hydrocarbons as Oxidizing Sacrifice Agents. AIChE Journal, 57, 2237-2243.
[6] Kapoor, P.N., Uma, S., Rodriguez, S. and Klabunde, K.J. (2005) Aerogel Processing of MTi2O5 (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sn) Compositions Using Single Source Precursors: Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Behavior. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 229, 145-150.
[7] Lee, K., Lee, N.H., Shin, S.H., Lee, H.G. and Kima, S.J. (2006) Hydrothermal Synthesis and Photocatalytic Characterizations of Transition Metals Doped Nano TiO2 Sols. Materials Science and Engineering, 129, 109-115.
[8] Ohno, T., Tsubota, T., Toyofuku, M. and Inaba, R. (2004) Photocatalytic Activity of a TiO2 Photocatalyst Doped with C4+ and S4+ Ions Having a Rutile Phase under Visible Light. Catalysis Letters, 98, 255-258.
[9] Yin, S., Aita, Y., Komatsu, M. and Sato, T. (2006) Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-xNy Prepared by Solvothermal Process in Urea-Alcohol System. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 26, 2735-2742.
[10] Ohtani, B., Ogawa, Y. and Nishimoto, S. (1997) Photocatalytic Activity of Amorphous-Anatase Mixture of Titanium (IV) Oxide Particles Suspended in Aqueous Solutions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 101, 3746-3752.
[11] Deguchi, S., Ogawa, M., Nowak, W., Wesolowska, M., Miwa, S., Sawada, K., Tsuge, J., Imaizumi, S., Kato, H., Tokutake, K., Niihara, Y. and Isu, N. (2013) Development of Super- and Sub-Critical Water Annealing Processes. Powder Technology, 249, 163-167.
[12] Deguchi, S. and Ogawa, M. (2011) Thermal Treatment of Metal-Compound Powders. PATENT in Japan, No. 2011-202259.
[13] Sawada, K., Ogawa, M., Miwa, S., Tsuge, J., Imaizumi, S., Kato, H., Tokutake, K., Niihara, Y., Isu, N. and Deguchi, S. (2013) Super- and Sub-Critical Water Annealing Processes. Proceedings of the International Symposium on EcoTopia Science 2013.
[14] Patterson, A.L. (1939) The Scherrer Formula for X-Ray Particle Size Determination. Physical Review, 56, 978-982.
[15] Marshall, W.L. and Franck, E.U. (1981) Ion Product of Water Substance, 0-1000 degC, 1-10000 Bars, New International Formulation and Its background. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 10, 295-304.
[16] Sato, S. and White, J.M. (1980) Photoassisted Water-Gas Shift Reaction over Platinized Titanium Dioxide Catalysts. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 102, 7206-7210.
[17] Nakayama, M., Doguchi, T. and Nishimura, H. (1992) Photoreflectance Study of Hole—Subband Structures in GaAs/ InxAl1-xAs Strained-Layer Superlattices. Journal of Applied Physics, 72, 2372-2376.
[18] Ube Industies, Ltd. (2012) Preparing Methods for Crystallized Titanium Oxides. PATENT in Japan, No. 2012-5999.
[19] Deguchi, S., Katsuki, R., Sugiura, Y., Takeichi, T., Shibata, N. and Isu, N. (2011) Induction by Visible Light of Photocatalytic Water Decontamination by Use of Powders of Nonlinear Optic Material and Visible-Light Phosphor to Generate Dispersed Ultraviolet Light. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu, 37, 38-41.
[20] Deguchi, S., Sugiura, Y., Shibata, N., Katsuki, R., Takeichi, T. and Isu, N. (2011) Photocatalytic Water Decontamination with Dispersed Light Source of Ultraviolet Electroluminescence Powder. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu, 37, 42-45.
[21] Deguchi, S., Kobayashi, N. and Kubota, M. (2008) Environmental Purifying Materials, Equipment and Method. PATENT in Japan, No. 2008-194622.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.