Settling/Sedimentation Followed by Sorption with Pinus sylvestris Sawdust as “Green” Sorbent: On-Site Treatment of a Real Industrial Wastewater

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.55040   PDF   HTML     3,941 Downloads   4,989 Views   Citations


Whereas the pulp and paper industrial sector—considered the second highest consumer of freshwater in Europe—has already been provided with sufficient wastewater characterization and treatment technologies, other wood-based industries (e.g. furniture, floor production), which do not use water for manufacturing processes, generate different wastewater streams after: 1) cleaning/washing of machinery that applies adhesives and coatings onto wood surfaces; 2) cleaning/washing of machinery that applies specific products for the curing phase of adhesives; 3) cleaning/washing of sharp planar blades used for the sawn process and to prepare wood surfaces for the adhesive application; 4) cleaning/washing of the floor; 5) cleaning/washing of trucks and vehicles. The dilution of low-volumes of highly polluted wastewater is not acceptable any longer since conventional treatment plants are not designed for these types of industrial wastewater. There is a need for proper characterization, treatability studies, designing and testing alternative small size and cost-effective treatment systems for on-site implementation. Treatment systems based on sorption mechanisms are flexible, easy to operate and generate less sludge and several low-cost sorbents generated by forestry activities have advantageous physico-chemical characteristics. The current paper presents the preliminary results from a pilot treatment system consisting of an equalization tank, settling/sedimentation and two sorption reactors in parallel using Pinus sylvestris sawdust as sorbent implemented as part of an integrated water management plan in a wood-floor industry. The simple to operate and cost-effective pilot treatment system performs satisfactorily during an initial period of operation. The study shows an average 39% - 54% reduction of TPH; 17% - 38% reduction of oil; 2% - 15% of reduction of COD and; 11% - 74% reduction of most toxic metals but for Co, Ni and Zn in the system B. Based on these results, Pinus sylvestris sawdust is a potential low-cost and abundant material to be considered for industrial wastewater treatment plants.

Share and Cite:

Kaczala, F. , Marques, M. and Hogland, W. (2014) Settling/Sedimentation Followed by Sorption with Pinus sylvestris Sawdust as “Green” Sorbent: On-Site Treatment of a Real Industrial Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 368-375. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.55040.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Lacorte, S., Latorre, A., Barcelo, D., Rigol, A., Malmqvist, A. and Welander, T. (2003) Organic Compounds in Paper-Mill Process Waters and Effluents. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 22, 725-737.
[2] Rintala, J.A. and Puhakka, A. (1994) Anaerobic Treatment in Pulp- and Paper-Mill Waste Management: A Review. Bioresource Technology, 47, 1-18.
[3] Kostamo, A., Holmbom, B. and Kukkonen, J.V.K. (2004) Fate of Wood Extractives in Wastewater Treatment Plants at Kraft Pulp Mills and Mechanical Pulp Mills. Water Research, 38, 972-982.
[4] Mobius, C.H. (1999) Wastewater Biofilters Used for Advanced Treatment Of Papermill Effluent. Water Science & Technology, 40, 101-108.
[5] Schnell, A., Sabourin, M.J., Skog, S. and Garvie, M. (1997) Chemical Characterization and Biotreatability of Effluents From an Integrated Alkaline-Peroxide Mechanical Pulping/Machine Finish Coated Paper Mill. Water Science and Technology, 235, 7-14.
[6] Werker A.G. and Hall, E.R. (1999) Limitations for Biological Removal of Resin Acids from Pulp Mill Effluent. Water Science and Technology, 40, 281-288.
[7] Helble, A., Schlayer, W., Liechti, P-A., Jenny, R. and Mobius, C.H. (1999) Advanced Effluent Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Industry with a Combined Process of Ozonation and Fixed Bed Biofilm Reactors. Water Science & Technology, 40, 343-350.
[8] Kaczala, F., Marques, M. and Hogland, W. (2009) Lead and Vanadium Removal from a Real Industrial Wastewater by Gravitation Settling/Sedimentation and Sorption onto Pinus sylvestris Sawdust. Bioresource Technology, 100, 235-243.
[9] Ayyappan, R., Sophia, A. C., Swaminathan K. and Sandhya, S. (2005) Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Carbon Derived from Agricultural Wastes. Process Biochemistry, 40, 1293-1299.
[10] Li, Q., Zhai, J., Zhang, W., Wang, M. and Zhou, J. (2007) Kinetics Studies of Sorption of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution by Sawdust and Modified Peanut Husk. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 141, 163-167.
[11] Shukla, A., Zhang, Y.H., Dubey, P., Margrave, J.L. and Shukla, S.S. (2002) The Role of Sawdust in the Removal of Unwanted Materials from Water. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 95, 137-152.
[12] Vásquez, G., Antorrena, G., González, J. andDoval, M.D. (1994) Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions by Chemically Modified Pinus pinaster Bark. Bioresource Technology, 48, 251-255.
[13] Al-Qodah, Z. (2006) Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Sludge. Desalination, 196, 164-176.
[14] Chang, W.C., Hsu, G.S., Chiang, S.M. and Su, M.C. (2006) Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Wasted Biomass from a Combined AS-Biofilm Process. Bioresource Technology, 97, 1503-1508.
[15] Ozsoy, H.D. and Kumbur, H. (2006) Sorption of Cu (II) Ions on Cotton Boll. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 911-916.
[16] Ucun, H., Bahyan, Y.K., Kaya, Y., Cakici, A. and Algur, O.F. (2003) Biosorption of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solution by Cone Biomass of Pinus sylvestris. Desalination, 154, 233-238.
[17] King, P., Srinivas, P., Kumar, Y. P. and Prasad, V.S.R.K. (2006) Sorption of Copper (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Tectonagrandis L.F. (Teak Leaves Powder). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 560-566.
[18] Saeed, A. and Iqbal, M. (2003) Bioremoval of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Black Gram Husk (Cicerarientinum). Water Research, 37, 3472-3480.
[19] Martínez, M., Miralles, N., Hidalgo, S., Fiol, N., Villaescusa, I. and Poch, J. (2006) Removal of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Grape Stalk Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 203-211.
[20] Kangsepp, P. (2008) Development and Evaluation of a Filter-Bed-Based System for Full Scale Treatment of Industrial Landfill Leachate. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, Lund.
[21] Wang, S. and Wu, H. (2006) Environmental-Benign Utilization of Fly Ash as Low-Cost Adsorbents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 482-501.
[22] Genc-Fuhrman, H., Mikkelsen, P.S. and Ledin, A. (2007) Simultaneous Removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from Stormwater: Experimental Comparison of 11 Different Sorbents. Water Research, 41, 591-602.
[23] Shin, E.W., Karthikeyan, K.G. and Tshabalala, M.A. (2007) Adsorption Mechanism of Cadmium on Juniper Bark and Wood. Bioresource Technology, 98, 588-594.
[24] Rivas, F.J., Garcia de laCalle, R., Alvarez, P. and Acedo, B. (2008) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Sorption on Soils: Some Anomalous Isotherms. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158, 375-383.
[25] Lemic, J., Tomasevic-Canovic, M., Adamovic, M., Kovacevic, D. and Milicevic, S. (2007) Competitive Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Organo-Zeolites. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 105, 317-323.
[26] Deschamps, G., Caruel, H., Borredon, M.E., Bonnin, C. and Vignoles, C. (2003) Oil Removal from Water by Selective Sorption on Hydrophobic Cotton Fibres. 1. Study of Sorption Properties and Comparison with Other Cotton Fibre-Based Sorbents. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 1013-1015.
[27] Srinivasan, A. and Viraraghavan, T. (2008) Removal of Oil by Walnut Shell Media. Bioresource Technology, 99, 8217-8220.
[28] Gammoun, A., Tahiri, S., Albizane, A., Azzi, M., Moros, J., Garrigues, S. and de laGuardia, M. (2007) Separation of Motor Oils, Oily Wastes and Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Water by Sorption on Chrome Shavings. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 145, 148-153.
[29] Valderrama, C., Gamisans, X., de lasHerras, X., Farran, A. and Cortina, J.L. (2008) Sorption Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Removal Using Granular Activated Carbon: Intraparticle Diffusion Coefficients. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 157, 386-396.
[30] Memon, S.Q., Memon, N., Shah, S.W., Khuhawar, M.Y. and Bhanger, M.I. (2007) Sawdust—A Green and Economical Sorbent for the Removal of Cadmium (II) Ions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 139, 116-121.
[31] International Organization of Standardization (2004) Water Quality. Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)-Part 1: General Guidelines. ISO 17294-1.
[32] Nederlands Normalisatie-Instituut (2008) Soil Quality-Quantitative Determination of the Content of Mineral Oil by Using Gas Chromatography, NEN 6978 (nl), Delft.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.