Thermally Induced Nanocrystal Array of Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole) on Si-Wafer Substrate

DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.55032   PDF   HTML     4,216 Downloads   5,185 Views   Citations


Recently, nanostructures such as nanocrystals and nanoaggregates have attracted much attention in many quarters of materials, electronics, and biology to create higher-value-added functional nanoscale materials and films. In this research, the fabrication of nanoaggregates on ultrathin photoconductive films of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVCz) by applying thermal treatment is demonstrated. The structure and size are discussed on the basis of the results of atomic force microscope images. As a result, after thermal treatment of these films above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PVCz, different types of surface morphological changes were induced showing a dependence on the tacticity of PVCz. Radically polymerized PVCz(r) ultrathin film showed small aggregates with heights of ~8 nm on the film surface after thermal treatment, while cationically polymerized PVCz(c), which has higher isotactic diad fractions than PVCz(r), indicated similar aggregates on the film surface, although the number of aggregates was smaller than PVCz(r). It is considered that these different phenomena depend on the tacticity of PVCz and the interaction between PVCz molecules and the substrate surface.

Share and Cite:

Yamada, K. and Tsuboi, Y. (2014) Thermally Induced Nanocrystal Array of Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole) on Si-Wafer Substrate. Materials Sciences and Applications, 5, 271-277. doi: 10.4236/msa.2014.55032.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Machida, S., Nakata, H., Yamada, K. and Itaya, A. (2007) Morphological Change of a Diblock Copolymer Film Induced by Selective Doping of a Photoactive Chromophore. Journal of Polymer Science: Part B: Polymer Physics, 45, 368-375.
[2] Machida, S., Nakata, H., Yamada, K. and Itaya, A. (2006) Position-Selective Arrangement of Nanosized Polymer Microsphere on Diblock Copolymer Film with Sea-Island Microphase Structure. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 45, 4270-4273.
[3] Yamada, K., Itoh, T. and Tsuboi, Y. (2008) Nanohole Processing of Polymer Films Based on the Laser-Induced Superheating of Au Nanoparticles. Applied Physics Express, 1, 087001.
[4] Muraoka, K., Yamada, K., Shoji, T., Sugimura, H., Kitamura, N. and Tsuboi, Y. (2012) Nano Porous Films Processing of Polymer Films Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Au Nanoparticles. Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 7, 260-263.
[5] Penwell, R.C., Ganguly, B.N. and Smith, T.W. (1978) Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole): A Selective Review of Its Polymerization, Structure, Properties, and Electrical Characteristics. Journal of Polymer Science: Macromolecular Reviews, 13, 63-160.
[6] Peason, J.M. and Stolka, M. (1981) Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole). Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York.
[7] Okamoto, K., Yamada, M., Itaya, A., Kimura, T. and Kusabayashi, S. (1976) Polymerization of N-Vinylcarbazole, N-Vinyl-5H-benzo[b]Carbazole, and N-Vinyl-7H-Benzo[c]Carbazole. Macromolecules, 9, 645-649.
[8] Itaya, A., Okamoto, K. and Kusabayashi, S. (1976) Emission Spectra of the Vinyl Polymers with Pendant Carbazolyl Groups. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 49, 2082-288.
[9] Itaya, A., Okamoto, K. and Kusabayashi, S. (1985) Hole Transport in Amorphous Films of Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole) Copolymers of N-Vinylcarbazole with STYRENE, Polystyrene Molecularly-Doped with N-Isopropylcarbazole, and 1,3-Di(N-carbazolyl)Propane. Polymer Journal, 17, 557-565.
[10] Terrel, D.R. and Evers F. (1982) Stereocontrol in the Cationic Polymerization of N-Vinylcarbazole. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 20, 2529-2543.
[11] Terrel, D.R. and Evers, F. (1982) Stereocontrol in the Free Radical Polymerization of N-Vinylcarbazole. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 183, 863-874.
[12] Terrel, D.R., Evers, F., Smoorenburg, H. and van den Boaert, H.M. (1982) The Dependence of the Glass Transition Temperature of Poly(N-Vinylcarbazole) upon Steric Microstructure and Molecular Weight. Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition, 20, 1933-1945.
[13] Leon, L.M., Katime, I. and Rodroguez, M. (1979) Solution Properties of Poly(N-vinyl carbazole)—II. Thermodynamic Properties in Various Solvent. European Polymer Journal, 15, 29-34. (For Example, the Radius of Gyration of PVCz(r) in 1,2-Dichloroethane, Casting Solvent, Is Estimated to Be 26 nm for Mw = 360000).

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.