Share This Article:

Sex Difference in Lactate Production by Adipocytes from Lean Humans

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:308KB) PP. 52-58
DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.43006    2,975 Downloads   4,708 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Lactate is an anaerobic metabolite produced in the absence of an adequate O2 supply. Although for a long time considered to be a waste product of glycolysis resulting from hypoxia, lactate is, in fact, an important source of glucose and also a gluconeogenic precursor, having a role in metabolic and endocrine signaling. Lactate is produced by adipocytes and muscle cells. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the sex differences in lactate production by adipocytes isolated from lean human visceral adipose tissue. Main Methods: The experiments described were done using adipocytes isolated from adipose tissue of lean men and women. Adipocytes were isolated following Rodbell procedure, with modifications, for posterior analysis of glycerol and lactate production. Results: Morphometric analysis revealed no significant differences in the size of adipocytes from men and women (diameter: men: 172 ± 24 μm vs. women: 160 ± 16 μm, n = 4 and 10, respectively). Basal glycerol production was significantly higher in adipocytes from men compared to women (0.34 ± 0.06 vs. 0.16 ± 0.01 μmol/106 cells/60 min; mean ± SEM, n = 7 and 4, respectively; p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in basal lactate production (men: 0.1 ± 0.01 μmol/10 cells/60 min vs. women: 0.12 ± 0.02 μmol/10 cells/60 min). However, when stimulated by norepinephrine, adipocytes from women produced more lactate than adipocytes from men. Female adipocytes also produced as much lactate as glycerol, whereas male adipocytes produced three times more glycerol than lactate. The intracellular mechanisms responsible for this sex difference in lactate production during norepinephrine-stimulated lipolysis remain to be identified.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Crege, D. , Silveira, H. , Chaim, É. , Pareja, J. , Géloen, A. and Grassi-Kassisse, D. (2014) Sex Difference in Lactate Production by Adipocytes from Lean Humans. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 4, 52-58. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.43006.

References

[1] Lönnqvist, F., Thörne, A., Large, V. and Arner, P. (1997) Sex Differences in Visceral Fat Lipolysis and Metabolic Complications of Obesity. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 17, 1472-1480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.17.7.1472
[2] Lafontan, M. and Berlan, M. (2003) Do Regional Differences in Adipocyte Biology Provide New Pathophysiological Insights? TIPS, 24, 276-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-6147(03)00132-9
[3] Torres-Marques, E., Romero-Avila, M.T., Gonzales-Espinosa, C. and Garcia-Sainz, A. (1992) Characterization of White Fat Cell Alpha1b-Adrenoceptors. Molecular Pharmacology, 42, 403-406.
[4] Kobatake, T., Watanabe, Y., Matsuzawa, Y., Tokunaga, K., Fujioka, S., Kawamoto, T., Keno, Y., Tarui, S. and Yoshida, H. (1991) Age-Related Changes in Adrenergic Alpha1, Alpha2, and Beta Receptors of Rat White Fat Cell Membranes: An Analysis Using [3H]Bunazosin as a Novel Ligand for the Alpha 1 Adrenoceptor. The Journal of Lipid Research, 32, 191-196.
[5] Faintrenie, G. and Géloën, A. (1996a) Lactate Production by White Adipocytes in Relation to Insulin Sensitivity. American Journal of Physiology, 270, C1061-1066.
[6] Faintrenie, G. and Géloën, A. (1998) Alpha-1 Adrenergic Stimulation of Glucose Uptake in Rat White Adipocytes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 286, 607-610.
[7] Boschmann, M., Gotz, K., Friedrich, CL., Klaus, S. and Jordan, J. (2002). In Vivo Response to α1-Adrenoceptor Stimulation in Human White Adipose Tissue. Obesity Research, 10, 555-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2002.75
[8] Bjorntorp, P. (1985) Regional Patterns of Fat Distribution. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 994-995.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-103-6-994
[9] Ley, C.J., Less, B. and Stevenson, J.C. (1992) Sex and Menopause Associated Changes in Body Fat Distribution. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55, 950-954.
[10] Blaak, E. (2001) Gender Differences in Fat Metabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 4, 499-502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00075197-200111000-00006
[11] Kotani, K., Tokunaga, K., Fujioka, S., Kobatake, T., Keno, Y., Yoshida, S., Shimomura, I., Tarui, S. and Matsuzaw, Y. (1994) Sexual Dimorphism of age-related changes in Whole Body Fat Distribution in the Obese. Int J Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders, 18, 207-212.
[12] Rodbell, M. (1964) Metabolism of Isolated Fat Cells—Effects of Hormones on Glucose Metabolism and Lipolysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 239, 375-380.
[13] Faintrenie, G. and Géloën, A. (1996b) Alpha-1 Adrenergic Regulation of Lactate Production by White Adipocytes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 277, 235-238.
[14] Salerno, A.G., Silva, T.R., Amaral, M.E., Alberici, L.C., Bonfleur, M.L., Patrício, P.R., Francesconi, E.P.M.S., Grassi-Kassisse, D.M., Vercesi, A.E., Boschero, A.C. and Oliveira, H.C. (2007) Overexpression of Apolipoprotein CIII Increases and CETP Reverses Diet-Induced Obesity in Transgenic Mice. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 1586-1595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803646
[15] Barhan, D. and Trinder, P, (1972) An Improved Colour Reagent for Determination of Glucose by the Oxydase System. Analyst, 97, 142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/an9729700142
[16] Francesconi, E.P.M.S., Almeida, J., Marin, D.M., Ortiz, J., Pareja, J.C., Muscelli, E., Monte-Alegre, S., Geloneze, B., Silveira, H.V., Spadari-Bratfisch, R.C., Géloën, A. and Grassi-Kassisse, D.M. (2006) Plasmatic Lactate Levels in Normal and Morbidly Obese Women before and during Euglicemic-Hyperinsulinemic Clamp. 41st Congress of the Brazilian Physiological Society & Joint Meeting with the Physiological Society, 237.
[17] Rebuffé-Scrive, M., Anderson, B., Olbe, L. and Bjorntorp, P. (1989) Metabolism of Adipose Tissue in Intraabdominal Depots of Nonobese Men and Women. Metabolism, 38, 453-458.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(89)90198-4
[18] Williams, C.M. (2004) Lipid Metabolism in Women. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 63, 153-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS2003314
[19] Ahmed, K., Tunaru, S., Tang, C., Müller, M., Gille, A., Sassmann, A., Hanson, J. and Offermanns, S. (2010) An Autocrine Lactate Loop Mediates Insulin-Dependent Inhibition of Lipolysis through GPR81. Cell Metabolism, 11, 311-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2010.02.012
[20] Sargent, C. and Scroop, G.C. (2007) Plasma Lactate Accumulation Is Reduced during Incremental Exercise in Untrained Women Compared with Untrained Men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 101, 91-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0477-9
[21] Esbjörnsson, M., Norman, B., Suchdev, S., Viru, M., Lindhgren, A. and Jansson, E. (2009) Greater Growth Hormone and Insulin Response in Women Than in Men during Repeated Bouts of Sprint Exercise. Acta Physiologica, 197, 107-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2009.01994.x
[22] Gladden, L.B. (2004) Lactate Metabolism: A New Paradigm for the Third Millennium. The Journal of Physiology, 558, 5-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.058701
[23] Miller, B.F., Fattor, J.A., Jacobs, K.A., Horning, M.A., Navazio, F., Lindinger, M.I. and Brooks, G.A. (2002) Lactate and Glucose Interactions during Rest and Exercise in Men: Effect of Exogenous Lactate Infusion. The Journal of Physiology, 544, 963-975.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2002.027128
[24] Fattor, J.A., Miller, B.F., Jacobs, K.A. and Brooks, G.A. (2005) Catecholamine Response Is Attenuated during Moderate-Intensity Exercise in Response to the “Lactate Clamp”. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 288, E143-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00117.2004
[25] Yamanishi, S., Katsumura, K., Kobayashi, T. and Puro, D.G. (2006) Extracellular Lactate as a Dynamic Vasoactive Signal in the Rat Retinal Microvasculature. Heart and Circulatory Physiology—American Journal of Physiology, 290, H925-934. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01012.2005
[26] Brooks, G.A. (2000) Intraand Extra-Cellular Lactate Shuttles. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 790-799.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200004000-00011
[27] Brooks, G.A. (2009) Cell-Cell and Intracellular Lactate Shuttles. The Journal of Physiology, 587, 591-600.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.