Share This Article:

Radioecology: Why Bother?

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:837KB) PP. 181-192
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.53022    3,397 Downloads   5,158 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The importance of radioecology to the discussion of radioactive contamination is discussed here. This paper discusses the history of radioecology, alongside the most recent developments in the science. It describes the need for more environmental data, and explains where the gaps in current knowledge lie. The calculation of radiation dose to wildlife along with the complications in performing such calculations is discussed. The paper also tackles the difficult question of the implications of radioecology on nuclear waste management and site decommissioning policies. From the beginnings of the science to today, radioecology is poised to be an important field of study as humans continue to rely on ionizing radiation to improve their lives.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

E. Caffrey, M. Leonard, J. Napier, D. Neville and K. Higley, "Radioecology: Why Bother?," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 5 No. 3, 2014, pp. 181-192. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.53022.

References

[1] F. W. Whicker and V. Schultz, “Radioecology: Nuclear Energy and the Environment,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1982.
[2] ICRP, “Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection,” Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1977, ICRP Publication 26.
[3] N. Ryabokon and R. Goncharova, “Transgenerational Accumulation of Radiation Damage in Small Mammals Chronically Exposed to Chernobyl Fallout,” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2006, pp. 167-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-006-0054-3
[4] A. P. Moller and T. A. Mousseau, “Species Richness and Abundance of Forest Birds in Relation to Radiation at Chernobyl,” Biology Letters, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2007, pp. 483-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0226
[5] A. P. Møller and T. A. Mousseau, “Reduced Abundance of Insects and Spiders Linked to Radiation at Chernobyl 20 Years after the Accident,” Biology Letters, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2009, pp. 356-359.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2008.0778
[6] J. Garnier-Laplace, S. Geras’kin, C. Della-Vedova, K. Beaugelin-Seiller, T. G. Hinton, A. Real and A. Oudalova, “Are Radiosensitivity Data Derived from Natural Field Conditions Consistent with Data from Controlled Exposures? A Case Study of Chernobyl Wildlife Chronically Exposed to Low Dose Rates,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 121, 2013, pp. 12-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.01.013
[7] IAEA, “TecDoc-1109 Use of Natural Analogues to Support Radionuclide Transport Models for Deep Geological Repositories for Long Lived Radioactive Wastes,” Vienna, 1999.
[8] F. Whicker and V. Schultz, “Radioecology: Nuclear Energy and the Environment V. 2,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1982.
[9] K. Higley, D. Bytwerk and E. Houser, “Transparency in the Selection of Biosphere Parameters for Geological Disposal Systems,” Waste Management Conference, Phoenix, 27 February-3 March 2011.
[10] K. A. Higley, “Estimating Transfer Parameters in the Absence of Data,” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2010, pp. 645-656.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-010-0326-9
[11] J. Napier, “Establishment of Concentration Ratios for Riparian and Shrub Steppe Areas of the Eastern Washington Columbia Basin,” Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2013.
[12] IAEA, “TecDoc-1616 Quantification of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments,” Vienna, 2009.
[13] J. Brown, P. Strand, A. Hosseini and B. Peer, “Handbook for Assessment of the Exposure of Biota to Ionising Radiation from Radionuclides in the Environment,” 2003.
[14] ICRU, “Photon, Electron, Proton, and Neutron Interaction Data for Body Tissues. ICRU Report 46,” International Commission on Radiation Units, Bethesda, 1992.
[15] ICRP, “Environmental Protection: The Concept and Use of Reference Animals and Plants,” Annals of the ICRP, Vol. 38, No. 4-6, 2008, ICRP Publication 108.
[16] G. H. Kramer, K. Capello, A. Chiang, E. Cardenas-Mendez and T. Sabourin, “Tools for Creating and Manipulating Voxel Phantoms,” Health Physics, Vol. 98, No. 3, 2010, pp. 542-548.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0b013e3181c34ced
[17] IAEA, “An International Peer Review of the Yucca Mountain Project TSPA-SR,” Vienna, 2002.
[18] D. W. Wu, M. A. Wasiolek, A. J. Tappen, J. J. Rautenstrauch and K. R. Smith, “ERMYN: Environmental Radiation Model for the Yucca Mountain, Nevada,” Las Vegas, 2002.
[19] B. A. Napier, R. J. Fellows and K. M. Krupka, “Radionuclide Behavior in Soils and Soil-To-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways (NUREG/CR-7120),” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC, 2012.
[20] S. Kamboj, D. LePoire, E. Gnanapragasam, B. Biwer, J. Cheng, J. Arnish, C. Yu and S. Y. Chen, “Probabilistic Dose Analysis Using Parameter Distributions Developed for RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD Codes (NUREG/ CR-6676),” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC, 2000.
[21] EPRI, “EPRI Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment Code (IMARC) Version 10: Model Description and Analyses,” Palo Alto, 2009.
[22] W. Miller, R. Alexander, N. Chapman, I. McKinley and J. Smellie, “Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues: Lessons from Nature and Archaeology,” Waste Management Series, Volume 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000.
[23] D. A. Robertson, D. A. Cataldo, B. A. Napier, K. M. Krupka and L. B. Sasser, “Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling (NUREG/CR-6825),” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1024566
[24] IAEA, “IAEA-TECDOC-1616: Quantification of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments for Radiological Assessments,” Vienna, 2009.
[25] L. H. Staven, B. A. Napier, K. Rhoads and D. L. Strenge, “A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal Products (PNNL-13421),” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/15010186
[26] Sandia National Laboratories, “Total System Performance Assessment Model/Analysis for the License Application,” Las Vegas, 2008.
[27] B. A. Napier, R. J. Fellows and K. M. Krupka, “Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food-Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models (NUREG/CR-6941),” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/926965
[28] D. Bytwerk, “Foliar Interception and Uptake of 36Cl by Crops,” Oregon State University, Corvallis, 2011.
[29] C. F. Baes, R. D. Sharp, A. L. Sjoreen and R. W. Shor, “A Review and Analysis of Parameters for Assessing Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides through Agriculture: A Review and Analysis of Parameters for Assessing Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides through Agriculture,” 1984.
[30] A. K. Furr, T. F. Parkinson, C. L. Heffron, J. T. Reid, W. M. Haschek, W. H. Gutenmann, C. A. Bache, L. E. St. John and D. J. Lisk, “Elemental Content of Tissues and Excreta of Lambs, Goats, and Kids Fed White Sweet Clover Growing on Fly Ash,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1978, pp. 847-851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf60218a004
[31] V. Kashparov, C. Colle, S. Levchuk, V. Yoschenko and N. Svydynuk, “Transfer of Chlorine from the Environment to Agricultural Foodstuffs,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.12.006
[32] V. Kashparov, C. Colle, S. Levchuk, V. Yoschenko and S. Zvarich, “Radiochlorine Concentration Ratios for Agricultural Plants in Various Soil Conditions,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 95, No. 1, 2007, pp. 10-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2007.01.008
[33] T. G. Hinton, R. Alexakhin, M. Balonov, N. Gentner, J. Hendry, B. Prister, P. Strand and D. Woodhead, “Radiation-Induced Effects on Plants and Animals: Findings of the United Nations Chernobyl Forum,” Health Physics, Vol. 93, No. 5, 2007, pp. 427-440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.HP.0000281179.03443.2e
[34] D. B. Chambers, R. V. Osborne and A. L. Garva, “Choosing an Alpha Radiation Weighting Factor for Doses to Non-Human Biota,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.10.009

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.