Overexpression of OsMAPK2 Enhances Low Phosphate Tolerance in Rice and Arabidopsis thaliana


The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is the most important mechanism in environmental responses and developmental processes in plants. The OsMAPK2 gene has been found to function in plant tolerance to diverse biotic/abiotic stresses. This paper presents evidence that OsMAPK2 (Oryza sativa MAP kinase gene 2) is responsive to Pi deficiency and involved in Pi homeostasis. We found that full-length expression of OsMAPK2 was up-regulated in both rice plants and cell culture in the absence of inorganic phosphate (Pi). The transgenic rice and Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsMAPK2 showed affected root development and increased plant Pi content compared with wild-type plants. Overexpression of OsMAPK2 controlled the expression of several Pi starvation-responsive genes. Our results indicated that OsMAPK2 enables tolerance phosphate deficiency and is involved in Pi homeostasis.

Share and Cite:

Y. Hur and D. Kim, "Overexpression of OsMAPK2 Enhances Low Phosphate Tolerance in Rice and Arabidopsis thaliana," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014, pp. 452-462. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.54059.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] G. Welp, U. Herms and G. Brümmer, “Einfluß von Bodenreaktion, Redoxbedingungen und Organischer Substanz auf die Phosphatgehalte der Bodenlösung,” Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, Vol. 146, No. 1, 1983, pp. 38-52.
[2] I. C. R. Holford, “Soil Phosphorus: Its Measurement, and Its Uptake by Plants,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1997, pp. 277-239.
[3] K. G. Raghothama, “Phosphate Acquisition,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 50, 1999, pp. 665-693.
[4] W. K. Gardner, D. G. Parbery and D. A. Barber, “Proteoid Root Morphology and Function in Linus Albus,” Plant Soil, Vol. 60, 1983, pp. 143-147.
[5] D. S. Lipton, R. W. Blanchar and D. G. Blenvins, “Citrate, Malate and Succinate Concentration in Exudates from P-Sufficient and P-Stressed Medicago sativa L. Seedlings,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 85, No. 2, 1987, pp. 315-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.85.2.315
[6] E. Hoffland, R. V. D. Boogaard, J. A. Nelemans and G. R. Findenegg, “Biosynthesis and Root Exudation of Citric and Malic Acids in Phosphate-Starved Rape Plants,” New Phytologist, Vol. 122, No. 4, 1992, pp. 675-680.
[7] S. Mishra, S. Srivastava, R. D. Tripathi, R. Kumar, C. S. Seth and D. K. Gupta, “Lead Detoxification by Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) Involves Induction of Phytochelatins and Antioxidant System in Response to Its Accumulation,” Chemosphere, Vol. 65, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1027-1039.
[8] S. Zhang and D. F. Klessig, “Salicylic Acid Activates a 48-kD MAP Kinase in Tobacco,” The Plant Cell, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1997, pp. 809-824.
[9] C. Jonak, L. Okresz, L. Bogre and H. Hirt, “Complexity, Cross Talk and Integration of Plant MAP Kinase Signaling,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2002, pp. 415-424.
[10] R. Seger and E. G. Krebs, “The MAPK Signaling Cascade,” The FASEB Journal, Vol. 9, No. 9, 1995, pp. 726-735.
[11] A. V. Khokhlatchev, “Phosphorylation of the MAP Kinase ERK2 Promotes Its Homodimerization and Nuclear Translocation,” Cell, Vol. 93, No. 4, 1998, pp. 605-615.
[12] R. W. Innes, “Mapping out the Roles of MAP Kinases in Plant Defense,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2001, pp. 392-394.
[13] G. Tena, T. Asai, W. L. Chiu and L. Sheen, “Plant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascades,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2001, pp. 392-400.
[14] P. J. Krysan, P. J. Jester, J. R. Gottwald and M. R. Sussman, “An Arabidopsis MAPKK Kinase Gene Family Encodes Essential Positive Regulators of Cytokinesis,” The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1109-1120.
[15] D. Matsuoka, T. Nanmori, K. Sato, Y. Fukami, U. Kikkawa and T. Yasuda, “Activation of AtMek1, an Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase, in Vitro and in Vivo: Analysis of Active Mutants Expressed in E. coli and Generation of the Active form in Stress Response in Seedlings,” The Plant Journal, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2002, pp. 637-647.
[16] T. Mizoguchi, K. Irie, T. Hirayama, N. Hayashida, K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. Matsumoto and K. Shinozaki, “A Gene Encoding a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Is Induced Simultaneously with Genes for a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and S6 Ribosomal Protein Kinase by Touch, Cold, and Water Stress in Arabidopsis Thaliana,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 93, No. 2, 1996, pp. 765-769. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.2.765
[17] C. He, S. H. T. Fong, D. Yang and G. L. Wang, “BWMK1, a Novel MAP Kinase Induced by Fungal Infection and Mechanical Wounding in Rice,” Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, Vol. 12, No. 12, 1999, pp. 1064-1073.
[18] L. Xiong, M. W. Lee, M. Qi and Y. Yang, “Identification of Defense-Related Rice Genes by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and Differential Screening,” Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2001, pp. 685-692. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.2001.14.5.685
[19] G. K. Agrawal, R. Rakwal and H. Iwahashi, “Isolation of Novel Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Multiple Stress Responsive MAP Kinase Gene, OsMSRMK2, Whose mRNA Accumulates Rapidly in Response to Environmental Cues,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 294, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1009-1016.
[20] H. J. Huang, S. F. Fu, Y. H. Tai, W. C. Chou and D. D. Huang, “Expression of Oryza sativa MAP Kinase Gene Is Developmentally Regulated and Stress-Responsive,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 114, No. 4, 2002, pp. 958-963.
[21] J. Q. Wen, K. Oono and R. Imai, “Two Novel Mitogen-Activated Protein Signaling Components, OsMEK1 and OsMAP1 Are Involved in Moderate Low-Temperature Signaling Pathway in Rice,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 129, No. 4, 2002, pp. 1880-1891.
[22] F. Song and R. M. Goodman, “OsBIMK1, a Rice MAP Kinase Gene Involved in Disease Resistance Responses,” Planta, Vol. 215, No. 6, 2002, pp. 997-1005.
[23] S. M. Yu, Y. H. Kuo, G. Sheu, Y. J. Sheu and L. F. Liu, “Metabolic Derepression of Alpha-Amylase Gene Expression in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Rice,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 266, No. 31, 1991, pp. 21131-21137.
[24] K. Miura, A. Rus, A. Sharkhuu, S. Yokoi, A. S. Karthikeyan, K. G. Raghothama, D. W. Baek, Y. D. Koo, J. B. Jin, R. A. Bressan, D. J. Yun and P. M. Hasegawa, “The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase SIZ1 Controls Phosphate Deficiency Responses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 102, No. 21, 2005, pp. 7760-7765.
[25] W. Zhang, D. McElroy and R. Wu, “Analysis of Rice Act1 5’ Region Activity in Transgenic Rice Plants,” The Plant Cell, Vol. 3, No. 11, 1991, pp. 1155-1165.
[26] M. Nanamori, T. Shinano, J. Wasaki, T. Yamamura, I. M. Rao and M. Osaki, “Low Phosphorus Tolerance Mechanisms: Phosphorus Recycling and Photosynthate Partitioning in the Tropical Forage Grass, Brachiaria Hybrid Cultivar Mulato Compared with Rice,” Plant and Cell Physiology, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2004, pp. 460-469.
[27] K. G. Raghothama, A. Maggio, M. L. Narasimhan, A. K. Kononowicz, G. L. Wang, M. P. D’Urzo, P. M. Hasegawa and R. A. Bressan, “Tissue-Specific Activation of the Osmotin Gene by ABA, C2H4 and NaCl Involves the Same Promoter Region,” Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3,1997, pp. 393-402.
[28] S. J. Clough and A. F. Bent, “Floral Dip: A Simplified Method for Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana,” The Plant Journal, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1998, pp. 735-743.
[29] Y. Hiei, S. Ohta, T. Komari and T. Kumashiro, “Efficient Transformation of Rice (Oriza sativa) Mediated by Agrobacterium and Sequence Analysis of the Boundaries of the T-DNA,” The Plant Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1994, pp. 271-282.
[30] X. L. Hou, P. Wu, F. C. Jiao, Q. J. Jia, H. M. Chen, J. Yu, X. W. Song and K. K. Yi, “Regulation of the Expression of OsIPS1 and OsIPS2 in Rice via Systemic and Local Pi Signaling and Hormones,” Plant Cell & Environment, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2005, pp. 353-364.
[31] C. Wang, S. Ying, H. Huang, K. Li, P. Wu and H. Shou, “Involvement of OsSPX1 in Phosphate Homeostasis in Rice,” The Plant Journal, Vol. 57, No. 5, 2009, pp. 895-904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03734.x
[32] R. Bari, B. D. Pant, M. Stitt and W.-R. Scheible, “PHO2, microRNA399, and PHR1 Define a Phosphate-Signaling Pathway in Plants,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 141, No. 3, 2006, pp. 988-999.
[33] L. Zhang, D. Xi, S. Li, Z. Gao, S. Zhao, J. Shi, C. Wu and X. Guo, “A Cotton Group C MAP Kinase Gene, GhMPK2, Positively Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance in Tobacco,” Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 77, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 17-31.
[34] X. Kong, J. Pan, M. Zhang, X. Xing, Y. Zhou, Y. Liu, D. Li and D. Li, “ZmMKK4, a Novel Group C Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase in Maize (Zea mays), Confers Salt and Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis,” Plant Cell & Environment, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1291-1303.
[35] Y. H. Cheong, B. C. Moon, J. K. Kim, C. Y. Kim, M. C. Kim, I. H. Kim, C. Y. Park, J. C. Kim, B. O. Park, S. C. Koo, H. W. Yoon, W. S. Chung, C. O. Lim, S. Y. Lee and M. J. Cho, “BWMK1, a Rice Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, Locates in the Nucleus and Mediates Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression by Activation of a Transcription Factor,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 132, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1961-1972.
[36] X. S. Huang, T. Luo, X.-Z. Fu, Q.-J. Fan and J.-H. Liu, “Cloning and Molecular Characterization of a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene from Poncirus Trifoliata Whose Ectopic Expression Confers Dehydration/Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 62, No, 14, 2011, pp. 5191-5206.
[37] L. Xiong and Y. Yang, “Disease Resistance and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice Are Inversely Modulated by an Abscisic Acid-Inducible Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase,” The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2003, pp. 745-759.
[38] J. B. Heo, Y. B. Yi and J. D. Bahk, “Rice GDP Dissociation Inhibitor 3 Inhibits OsMAPK2 Activity through Physical Interaction,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 414. No. 4, 2011, pp. 814-819. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.10.018
[39] J. López-Bucio, A. Cruz-Ramírez and L. Herrera-Estrella, “The Role of Nutrient Availability in Regulating Root Architecture,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2003, pp. 289-287.
[40] J. Zhou, F. Jiao, Z. Wu, X. Wang, X. He, W. Zhong and P. Wu, “OsPHR2 Is Involved in Phosphate-Starvation Signaling and Excessive Phosphate Accumulation in Shoots of Plants,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 146, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1673-1686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.107.111443
[41] S. Abel, A. C. Ticconi and C. A. Delatorre, “Phosphate Sensing in Higher Plants,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 115, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1-8.
[42] B. N. Devaiah, V. K. Nagarajan and K. G. Raghothama, “Phosphate Homeostasis and Root Development in Arabidopsis Are Synchronized by the Zinc Finger Transcription Factor ZAT6,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 145, No. 1, 2007, pp. 147-159.
[43] J. M. Franco-Zorrilla, E. Gonzalez, R. Bustos, F. Linhares, A. Leyva and J. Paz-Ares, “The Transcriptional Control of Plant Responses to Phosphate Limitation,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 55, No. 396, 2004, pp. 285-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh009
[44] C. Wang, S. Ying, H. Huang, K. Li, P. Wu and H. Shou, “Involvement of OsSPX1 in Phosphate Homeostasis in Rice,” The plant Journal, Vol. 57, No. 5, 2009, pp. 895-904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03734.x
[45] F. Liu, Z. Wang, H. Ren, C. Shen, Y. Li, H. Q. Ling, C. Wu, X. Lian and P. Wu, “OsSPX1 Suppresses the Function of OsPHR2 in the Regulation of Expression of OsPT2 and Phosphate Homeostasis in Shoots of Rice,” The Plant Journal, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2010, pp. 508-517.
[46] V. Bonardi, P. Pesaresi, T. Becker, E. Schleiff, R. Wagner, T. Pfannschmidt, P. Jahns and D. Leister, “Photosystem II Core Phosphorylation and Photosynthetic Acclimation Require Two Different Protein Kinases,” Nature, Vol. 437, No. 7062, 2005, pp. 1179-1182.
[47] J. D. Rochaix, “Role of Thylakoid Protein Kinases in Photosynthetic Acclimation,” FEBS Letters, Vol. 581, No. 152, 2007, pp. 2768-2775.
[48] S. Baginsky and W. Gruissem, “The Chloroplast Kinase Network: New Insights from Large-Scale Phosphoproteome Profiling,” Molecular Plant, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1141-1153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mp/ssp058

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.