Investigation Motorcycle Safety at Exit Ramp Sections by Analyzing Historical Crash Data and Rider’s Perception


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety performance of four exit ramp types and the major contributing factors on motorcycle crashes and injury severity of motorcycle riders. A six-year crash data were collected in Florida, and a web-based survey (234 samples) was conducted. 573 crashes were found at 419 exits, including 178 diamond exits, 71 directional exits, 85 loop exits and 85 outer connection exits. For a diamond exit, both the survey and crash data showed that this type was safer and more preferable by motorcycle riders; while a loop exit was the most dangerous exit due to the sharp curve and a certain length of curve with limited visibility. For a directional exit, longer ramp lengths and the reverse curvature are the major factors causing motorcycle crashes. For an outer connection exit, the riders rated it as a safe type; however, the data showed higher average crash frequency and rate than those at diamond exits or directional exits. The possible reason could be the unexpected curvature in the middle of the ramp, which could be dangerous if the rider is not familiar with the exit ramp location or doesnt pay attention to the ramp curvatures. The crash predictive model was developed, and the result indicated that if all remained the same, a directional exit, a loop exit, or an outer connection exit will have 16%, 27%, and 42% more crashes than a diamond exit, respectively. The findings from this study can help policy-makers and engineers to develop and apply effective countermeasures to reduce motorcycle crashes and injury severity levels for different exit ramp types.

Share and Cite:

H. Chen, C. Lee and P. Lin, "Investigation Motorcycle Safety at Exit Ramp Sections by Analyzing Historical Crash Data and Rider’s Perception," Journal of Transportation Technologies, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 107-115. doi: 10.4236/jtts.2014.41011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), “Traffic Safety Facts 2010 Data—Motorcycles,” DOT HS 811 639, 2010.
[2] T. P. Savolainen and F. Mannering, “Probabilistic Models of Motorcyclists’ Injury Severity in Single- and Multi-Vehicle Crashes,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2007, pp. 955-963.
[3] D. Chimba, C. J. Lan and J. B. Li, “Statistical Evaluation of Motorcycle Crash Injury Severities by Using Multinomial Models,” Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington DC, 2006.
[4] R. A. Lundy, “The Effect of Ramp Type and Geometry on Accidents,” California Department of Public Works, Division of Highways, Sacramento, 1965.
[5] M. K. Bauer and W. D. Harwood, “Statistical Models of Accidents on Interchange Ramps and Speed-Change Lanes,” FHWA-RD-97-106, Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, 1998.
[6] H. Chen and J. J. Lu, “Evaluating the Impacts of Ramp Configurations and Influential Factors on Freeway Exit Ramps,” ICCTP2009: Critical Issues in Transportation Systems Planning, Development and Management, America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2009, pp. 895-905.
[7] A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington DC, 2011.
[8] M. M. Haque, C. H. Chin and H. L. Huang, “Modeling Fault among Motorcyclists Involved in Crashes,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2009, pp. 327-335.
[9] M. Hunter, R. Machemehl and A. Tsyganov, “An Operational Evaluation of Freeway Ramp Design,” Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Vol. 1751, 2001, pp. 90-100.
[10] H. W. Schneider IV, T. P. Savolainen and N. D. Moore, “Effects of Horizontal Curvature on Single-Vehicle Motorcycle Crash Along Rural Two-Lane Highways,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2194, Washington DC, 2010, pp. 91-98,
[11] N. B. Janson, W. Awad and J. Robles, “Truck Accidents at Freeway Ramps: Data Analysis and High-Risk Site Identification,” Journal of Transportation and Statistics, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 75-92.
[12] A. M. Abdel-Aty and A. E. Radwan, “Modeling Traffic Accident Occurrence and Involvement,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 39, 1999, pp. 657-670.
[13] P. S. Washington, G. M. Karlaftis and L. F. Mannering, “Statistical and Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis,” 2nd Edition, Taylor & Franicis Group, London, 2010.
[14] M. Hunter, R. Machemehl and A. Tsyganov, “Reevaluation of Ramp Design Speed Criteria: Summary Report,” Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas Department of Transportation Research and Technology Transfer Section/Construction Division, 2000.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.