Spatial Variations of Particle-Bound Trace Metals in Ambient Air of Selected Niger Delta Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412172   PDF   HTML     2,820 Downloads   4,053 Views  


The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variation of particle-bound heavy metals in two communities with different industrial status in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Area. Fourteen ambient respirable particulate matter (PM10) samples 7 each from Eleme (highly industrialized) and Ahoada East (less industrialized) communities were collected according to standard methods using Anderson High volume sampler. Samples were analyzed for trace metals including Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Man Whitney U test and Spearman Rank Correlation all at P < 0.05. PM10 levels were 1.83 times higher at Eleme than Ahoada East (P < 0.05) and all the values were higher than both the USEPA and WHO limits. At Eleme spatial variation of PM10 was in the following order: APE5 > APE3 > APE7 > APE1 > APE4 > APE6 > APE2. Fe, Zn and Cd were higher at Eleme than Ahoada East and the EC/WHO values. Pb was poorly correlated with PM10 (r2 = 0.0819, P > 0.05) at Eleme. Communities with higher industrial presence in the Niger Delta are more exposed to particulate burden. Routine monitoring and strict adherence to regulatory limits must be enforced.

Share and Cite:

G. Ana, M. Sridhar and J. Nriagu, "Spatial Variations of Particle-Bound Trace Metals in Ambient Air of Selected Niger Delta Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1502-1509. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412172.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] V. Kathuria, “Vehicular Pollution Control in Delhi,” Transportation Research Part D. Transport and Environment, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2002, pp. 373-387.
[2] WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, “WHO Regional Publications European Series No. 91,” Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2000.
[3] “WHO Air Quality Guidelines,” Global Update, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2005.
[4] D. W. Dockery and C. A. Pope, “Acute Respiratory Effects of Particulate Air Pollution,” Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 15, 1994, pp. 107-132.
[5] M. Sagai, A. Furayama and T. Ichinose, “Biological Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP). III. Pathogenesis of Asthma like Symptoms in Mice,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1996, pp. 199-207.
[6] K. Sasaki and K. Sakamoto, “Vertical Differences in the Composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Urban Atmosphere of Osaka, Japan,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 9, 2005, pp. 7240-7250.
[7] D. W. Dockery, A. Pope, X. Xu, J. D. Spengler, J. H. Ware, M. E. Fay, B. G. Ferris and F. E. Speizer, “An Association between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six US Cities,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 24, 1993, pp. 1753-1759.
[8] C. A. Pope, M. U. Thun, M. M. Namboodiri, D. W. Dockery, J. S Evan, F. E. Speizer and C. W. Heath Jr., “Particulate Air Pollution as a Predictor of Mortality in a Prospective Study of US Adults,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 151, No. 3, 1995, pp. 669-674.
[9] J. Schwartz, D. W. Dockery and L. M. Neas, “Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine Particles?” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Vol. 46, No. 10, 1996, pp. 927-939.
[10] K. A. Berube, T. P. Jones, B. J. Williamson, C. Winters, A. J. Morgan and R. Richards, “Physicochemical Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particles: Factors for Assessing Biological Activity,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 33, No. 10, 1999, pp. 1599-1614.
[11] Y. Zhu, W. C. Hinds, S. Kim, S. Shen and C. Sioutas, “Study of Ultrafine Particles near a Major Highway with Heavy-Duty Diesel Traffic,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 27, 2002, pp. 4323-4335.
[12] G. C. Fang, Y. S. Wu, S. H. Huang and J. Y. Rau, “Review of Atmospheric Metallic Elements in Asia during 2000-2004,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 17, 2005, pp. 3003-3013.
[13] J. O. Nriagu, “Global Inventory of Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions of Trace Metals to the Atmosphere,” Nature, Vol. 279, No. 5712, 1979, pp. 409-411.
[14] A. Seaton, W. Mac Nee, K. Donaldson and D. Godden, “Particulate Air Pollution and Acute Health Effects,” The Lancet, Vol. 345, No. 8943, 1995, pp. 176-178.
[15] C. H. McKenzie, A. A. L. Godwin and L. Morawska, “Characterisation of Elemental and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compositions of Urban Brisbane,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2005, pp. 463-476.
[16] C. Hueglin, R. Gehrig, U. Baltensperger, M. Gysel, C. Monn and H. Vonmont, “Chemical Charaterisation of PM2.5, PM10 and Coarse Particles at Urban, Near-City and Rural Sites in Switzerland,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2005, pp. 637-651.
[17] IPCC, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dial, K. Maskell and C. A. Johnson, “The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group to the 3rd Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” In: Climate Change 2001, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, p. 881.
[18] P. R. Salve, R. J. Krupadam and S. R. Wate, “A Study on Major Inorganic Ion Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols,” Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2007, pp. 241-244
[19] I. Morawska, E. R. Jayarante, K. Mengersen, M. Kamriska and S. Thomas, “Differences in Airborne Particle and Gaseous Concentration in Urban Air between Weekdays and Weekends,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 27, 2002, pp. 4375-4383.
[20] G. C. Kisku, P. R. Salve, M. Kidwai, A. H. Khan, S. C. Barman, R. Singh, et al., “A Random Survey of Ambient Air Quality in Lucknow City and Its Possible Impact on Environmental Health,” Indian Journal of Air Pollution Control, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2003, pp. 45-58.
[21] K. Sharma, R. Singh, S. C. Barman, D. Mishra, R. Kumar, M. P. S. Negi, et al., “Comparison of Trace Metals Concentration in PM10 of Different Location of Lucknow City,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 77, No. 3, 2006, pp. 419-426.
[22] H. W. Mielke and P. L. Reagan, “Soil is an Important Pathway of Human Lead Exposure,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 106, Suppl. 1, 1998, pp. 217-229.
[23] A. Dong, G. Chesters and G. V. Simsiman, “Metal Composition of Soil, Sediments, and Urban Dust and Dirt Samples from the Menomonee River Watershed, Wisconsin, USA,” Water, Air Soil Pollution, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1984, pp. 257-275.
[24] M. K. C. Sridhar, L. Adogame and J. Olawuyi, “Lead Exposure in Urban Centres: A Case Study from Ibadan, Nigeria (Abstract),” Epidemiology, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2002, p. S62.
[25] T. M. Young, D. A. Heeramen, G. Sirin and L. L. Ashbaugh, “Resuspension of Soil as a Source of Airborne Lead near Industrial Facilities and Highways,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 36, No. 11, 2002, pp. 2484-2490.
[26] J. O. Nriagu, M. I. Blackson and K. Ocram, “Childhood Lead Poisoning in Africa: A Growing Public Health Problem,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 181, No. 2, 1996, pp. 93-101.
[27] S. Benoff, A. Jacob and I. R. Hurley, “Male Infertility and Environmental Exposure to Lead and Cadmium,” Human Reproduction Update, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2000, pp. 107-121.
[28] N. Manalis, G. Grivas, V. Protonorios, A. Moutsatsou, C. Samara and A. Chaloulakou, “Toxic Metal Content of Particulate Matter (PM10), within the Greater Area of Athens,” Chemosphere, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2005, pp. 557-566.
[29] H. Hu, “Human Health and Heavy Metals Exposure,” In: M. McCally, Ed., Life Support: The Environment and Human Health, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2002, pp. 65-81.
[30] C. Santo-Burgoa, C. Rios, L. A. Nereadi, R. Areoguda-Serrano, F. Cano-Vall, R. A. Eden-Wynter, et al., “Exposure to Manganese; Health Effects on the General Population, a Pilot Study in Central Mexico,” Environmental Research. Section A, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2001, pp. 90-104.
[31] ASTDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), “Toxicological Profile of Copper,” Division of Toxicology, Atlanta, 2002.
[32] G. R. E. E. Ana, M. K. C. Sridhar and J. F. Olawuyi, “Air Pollution in a Chemical Fertilizer Industry in Nigeria: Impact on Health of Plant Workers,” Journal of Environmental Health Research (JEHR), Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005, pp. 57-62.
[33] J. A. Adejumo, I. O. Obioh, O. J. Ogunsola, F. A. Akeredolu, H. B. Olaniyi, O. I. Asubiojo, A. F. Oluwole, O. A. Akanle and M. N. Spyrou, “The Atmospheric Deposition of Major and Minor Trace Elements within and around Cement Factories,” Journal of Radional and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 179, No. 2, 1994, pp. 195-204.
[34] A. Ajayi and O. F. Kamson, “Determination of Lead in Roadside Dust in Lagos City by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry,” Environment International, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1983, pp. 397-400.
[35] L. C. Ndiokwere, “The Dispersal of Arsenic, Chromium and Copper from a Wood Treatment Factory, and Their Effect on Soil, Vegetation and Crops,” International Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, 1985, pp. 231-234.
[36] S. I. Efe, “Spatial Distribution of Particulate Air Pollution in Nigerian Cities: Implications for Human Health,” Publication of Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2008, pp. 1-12.
[37] J. M. Okuo and C. L. Ndiokwere, “Elemental Concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate Matter in Relation to Air Pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria: A Case Study of Warri,” Trends in Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp. 91-96.
[38] F. A. Akeredolu, “Measurement of Deposition Rates, Concentrations and Chemical Composition of Indoor/ Outdoor Particulate Matter in Ile-Ife, Nigeria,” Ife Technology Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1989, pp. 54-57.
[39] I. O. Asubiojo, P. O. Aina, A. F. Oluwole, W. Arsheed, O. A. Akanle and N. M. Spyrou, “Effect of Cement Production on the Elemental Composition of Soils in the Neighborhood of two cement factories,” Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 57-58,1991 pp. 819-828.
[40] C. R. Dorn, J. O. Pierce, G. R. Chase and P. E. Philips, “Environmental Contamination by Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in a New Lead-Producing Area,” Environmental Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1975, pp. 159-172.
[41] M. Singh, P. A. Jacques and C. Sioutas, “Size Distribution and Diurnal Characteristics of Particle-Bound Metals in Source and Receptor Sites of Los Angeles Basin,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1675-1689.
[42] M. Roosli, C. Braun-Fahrlander, N. Künzli, L. Oglesby, G. Theis, M. Camenzind, et al., “Spatial Variability of Different Fractions of Particulate Matter within an Urban Environment and between Urban and Rural Sites,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2000, pp. 1115-1124.
[43] P. Lenschow, H. Abraham and K. Kutzner, et al., “Some Idea about the Source of PM10,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2001, pp. 523-533.
[44] J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, D. H. Lowenthal and R. J. Countess, “Sources and Chemistry of PM10 Aerosol in Santa Barbara County, CA,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 30, No. 9, 1996, pp. 1489-1499.
[45] Federal Environmental Protection Agency, “National Interim Guidelines and Standards for Industrial Effluents, Gaseous Emissions and Hazardous Wastes,” Environmental Pollution Control Handbook, FEPA, Lagos, 1991, pp. 33-63.
[46] Y. Gao, E. D. Nelson, M. P. Field, Q. Ding, H. Li, R. M. Sherrell, C. L. Gigliotti, D. A. Van Ry, T. R. Glenn and S. J. Eisenreich, “Characterization of Atmospheric Trace Elements on PM2.5 Particulate Matter over the New York—New Jersey Harbor Estuary,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1077-1086.
[47] H. K. Gupta, V. B. Gupta, C. V. C. Rao, D. G. Gajghate and M. Z. Hasan, “Urban Air Quality and Its Management Strategy for a Metropolitan City of India,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2002, pp. 347-354.
[48] G. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Yu, S. Gao, J. Feng and S. Gao, et al., “Chemical Characterization of Water-Soluble Components of PM10 and PM25 Atmospheric Aerosols in Five Locations of Nanjing, China,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 21, 2003, pp. 2893-2902.
[49] A. D. Maynard and E. D. Kuempel, “Airborne Nanostructured Particles and Occupational Health,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 7, No. 6, 2005, pp. 587-564.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.