Potential Groundwater Pollution Risks by Heavy Metals from Agricultural Soil in Songon Area (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire)

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412165   PDF   HTML     3,924 Downloads   5,849 Views   Citations


The soil samples were collected taking into account the land use in Songon area. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of soils was characterized in-situ when specific yield (Sy), pHw and concentrations of Cooper, Iron, Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium and Lead were measured in the laboratory. Pollution load indices (PLI) were calculated to evaluate the soil contamination levels. The soils were neutral and alkaline (6.7≤ pH ≤ 9.20), permeable (1.9 í 10-5 m·s-1 ≤ K ≤ 8.2 í 10-4 m·s-1), with a high specific yield (13.33% ≤ Sy ≤ 33.33%) which can favor the pollutants transfer. The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb) have very high concentrations in soils. The integrated pollution indices (PLI) indicate that almost 70% of Songon soils are moderately contaminated by the investigated heavy metals, with windows presenting high indices of pollution related to the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides. The establishment of new boreholes in the Songon area should consider these heavy metals, so as to avoid the risk of groundwater pollution due to the physical properties of soils.

Share and Cite:

I. Kouamé, L. Kouassi, B. Dibi, K. Adou, I. Rascanu, G. Romanescu, I. Savané and I. Sandu, "Potential Groundwater Pollution Risks by Heavy Metals from Agricultural Soil in Songon Area (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire)," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12, 2013, pp. 1441-1448. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412165.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] P. J. M. Sanchez, I. Antiguedad, I. Arrate, C. Garcia-Linares and I. Morell, “The Influence of Nitrate Leaching through Unsaturated Soil on Groundwater Pollution in an Agricultural Area of the Basque Country: A Case Study,” Sciences of Total Environment, Vol. 317, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 173-187.
[2] M. N. Almasri and J. J. Kaluarachchi, “Modeling Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater in Agricultural Watersheds,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 343, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 211-229.
[3] W. Tang, B. Shan, H. Zhang and Z. Mao, “Heavy Metal Sources and Associated Risk in Response to Agricultural Intensification in the Estuarine Sediments of Chaohu Lake Valley, East China,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 176, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 945-951.
[4] C. Turra, F. E. A. De Nadai, V. A. Stefanuto, M. A. Bacchi, G. A. Sarriés and A. E. L. Reyes, “Arsenic and Chromium in Brazilian Agricultural Supplies,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, Vol. 73, No. 13-14, 2010, pp. 910-915.
[5] G. D. Laing, J. Rinklebe, B. Vandecasteele, E. Meers and F. M. G. Tack, “Trace metal Behaviour in Estuarine and Riverine Floodplain Soils and Sediments: A Review,” Sciences of Total Environment, Vol. 407, No. 13, 2009, pp. 3972-3985.
[6] G. R. Bhagure and S. R. Mirgane, “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Groundwaters and Soils of Thane Region of Maharashtra, India,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 173, No. 1-4, 2011, pp. 643-652.
[7] M. Romic and D. Romic, “Heavy Metal Distribution in Agricultural Topsoils in Urban Area,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2003, pp. 795-805.
[8] F. A. Nicholson, S. R. Smith, B. J. Alloway, C. Carlton-Smith and B. J. Chambers, “An Inventory of Heavy Metal Input to Agricultural Soils in England and Wales,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 311, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 205-219.
[9] A. Navas and J. Machin, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Soils of Aragón (northeast Spain): Controlling Factors and Environmental Implications,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 8, 2002, pp. 961-973.
[10] K. Loska, D. Wiechula and I. Korus, “Metal Contamination of Farming Soils Affected by Industry,” Environment International, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2004, pp. 159-165.
[11] C. S. L. Lee, X. Li, W. Shi and S. C.-N. Cheung and I. Thornton, “Metal Contamination in Urban, Suburban, and Country Park Soils of Hong Kong: A Study Based on GIS and Multivariate Statistics,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 356, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 45-61.
[12] X. Li, S.-L. Lee, S.-C. Wong, W. Shi and I. Thornton, “The Study of Metal Contamination in Urban Soils of Hong Kong Using a GIS-based Approach,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2004, pp. 113-124.
[13] S. Maas, R. Scheifler, M. Benslama, N. Crini, E. Lucot, Z. Brahmia, S. Benyacoub and P. Giraudoux, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Urban, Suburban and Agricultural Soils in a Mediterranean City of Algeria,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 158, No. 6, 2010, pp. 2294-2301.
[14] B. Dibi, K. I. Kouame, A. B. Konan-Waidhet, I. Savane, J. Biemi, V. Nedeff and G. Lazar, “Impact of Agriculture on the Quality of Groundwater Resources in Peri-Urban Zone of Songon (Cote d’Ivoire),” Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 12, 2012, pp. 2173-2182.
[15] K. I. Kouame, B. Dibi, K. Koffi, I. Savane and I. Sandu, “Statistical Approach of Assessing Horizontal Mobility of Heavy Metals in the Soil of Akouedo Landfill Nearby Ebrie Lagoon (Abidjan-Cote d’Ivoire),” International Journal of Conservation Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2010, pp. 149-160.
[16] D. G. Marsily, “Hydrogéologie Quantitative, Collection Sciences de la Terre,” Masson, Paris, 1981.
[17] K. I. Kouame, “Pollution Physico-Chimique des Eaux Dans la zone de la Décharge d’Akouédo et Analyse du Risque de Contamination de la Nappe d’Abidjan par un Modèle de Simulation des Ecoulements et du Transport des Polluants,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Abobo-Adjamé, Cote d’Ivoire, 2007.
[18] X. Wang, M. He, J. Xie, J. Xi and X. Lu, “Heavy Metal Pollution of the World Largest Antimony Mine-Affected Agricultural Soils in Hunan Province (China),” Journal of Soils and Sediments, Vol. 10, No. 5, 2010, pp. 827-837.
[19] K. J. Kouakou, “Etude des Métaux Traces (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni) Dans les sols et les Produits Maraichers de Deux Sites d’Agriculture dans la Ville d’Abidjan (Cote d’ Ivoire),” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Abobo-Adjamé, Cote d’Ivoire, 2009.
[20] D. L. Tomlinson, J. G. Wilson, C. R. Harris and D. W. Jeffrey, “Problems in the Assessment of Heavy-Metal Levels in Estuaries and the Formation of a Pollution Index,” Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, 1980, pp. 566-575.
[21] J. C. Akan, S. I. Audu, Z. Mohammed and V. O. Ogugbuaja, “Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria,” Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2013, pp. 618-628.
[22] N. Touré, A. Yao-Kouamé, K. A. Alui and T. P. Guety, “Evaluation en Eléments Majeurs et Traces Métalliques d’un Environnement de Production Agricole dans la Vallée du Niéki au Sud-Est de la Cote d’Ivoire,” Journal of Applied Biosciences, Vol. 34, 2010, pp. 2134-2144.
[23] S. R. Smith and K. E. Giller, “Effective Rhizombium leguminosarum Biovar Trifolii Present in Five Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals from Long-Term Applications of Sewage Sludge or Metal Mine Spoil,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1992, pp. 781-788.
[24] E. Roose, M. Cheroux, F.-X. Humbel and A. Perraud, “Les Sols du Bassin Sédimentaire de Cote d’Ivoire,” Cahiers ORSTOM, Série Pédologie, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1966, pp. 51-92.
[25] L.-E. Bergeron, “L’eau Souterraine Dans la Région de Duplessis, Cote-Nord, Québec: Un Apercu,” Organisme de Bassins Versants, Duplessis, 2001.
[26] X. Wang and Y. Qin, “Spatial Distribution of Metals in Urban Top Soils of Xuzhou (China): Controlling Factors and Environmental Implications,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2006, pp. 905-914.
[27] F. Zhou, H. Guo and Z. Hao, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Hong Kong’s Marine Sediments and Their Human Impacts: A GIS Based Chemometric Approach,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1372-1384.
[28] A. Kabata-Pendias and H. Pendias, “Trace Element in Soils and Plants,” CRC Press, London, 2001.
[29] I. K. Kouamé, D. L. Goné, I. Savané, E. A. Kouassi, K. Koffi, B. T. A. Goula and M. Diallo, “Mobilité Relative des Métaux Lourds Issus de la Décharge d’Akouédo et Risque de Contamination de la Nappe du Continental Terminal (Abidjan-Cote d’Ivoire),” Afrique SCIENCE, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2006, pp. 39-56.
[30] M. L. Bloemen, B. Markert and H. Lieth, “The Distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Topsoils of Osnabrück in Relation to Land Use,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 166, No. 1-3, 1995, pp. 137-148.
[31] A. Pichard, M. Bisson, R. Diderich, N. Houeix, C. Hulot, G. Lacroix, J. P. Lefevre, S. Leveque, H. Magaud, A. Morin, M. Rose and G. Pepin, “Fiche de Donnees Toxicologiques et Environnementales des Substances Chimiques: Chrome et ses Derives Inorganiques,” INERIS, Paris, 2004.
[32] D. C. Adriano, “Trace Elements in the Territorial Environment, Trace Element in the Environment,” Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986.
[33] D. E. Baker and J. P. Senft, “Cooper-Heavy Metal in Soils,” Blackies Academic and Professional, London, 1995.
[34] G. C. Kisku, S. C. Barman and S. K. Bhrgava, “Contamination of Soils and Plants with Potentially Toxic Elements Irrigated with Mixed Industrial Effluent and Its Impact on the Environment,” Water, Air & Soil Pollution, Vol. 120, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 121-137.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.