Preparation and evaluation of a novel antibacterial glass-ionomer cement

DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.612140   PDF   HTML     3,026 Downloads   4,691 Views  


A novel antibacterial glass-ionomer cement has been developed. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed cement. Compressive yield strength (YS), modulus (M), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and flexural strength (FS) were also determined. All the formulated antibacterial cements showed a significant antibacterial activity, accompanying with an initial CS reduction. The effect of the synthesized antibacterial polymer loading was significant. Increasing loading from 1% to 20% significantly decreased the S. mutans viability from 3% to 50% and also reduced the initial CS (325 MPa) of the formed cements from 19% to 75%. The cement with 5% antibacterial polymer loading showed 142 MPa, 6.9 GPa, 224 MPa, 52 MPa, and 62 MPa in YS, M, CS, DTS and FS, respectively, as compared to 170, 7.1, 325, 60 and 87 for the experimental cement without antibacterial polymer addition and 141, 6.9, 236, 42 and 53 for Fuji II LC. It was also found that the chlorine-containing antibacterial cement showed better CS values than the bromine-containing cement, with no significant difference in antibacterial activity. The antibacterial cement also showed a similar antibacterial activity to Streptococcus mutans, lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The human saliva did not affect the antibacterial activity of the cement. The thirty-day aging study indicates that the cements may have a long-lasting antibacterial function.


Share and Cite:

Howard, L. , Weng, Y. , Huang, R. , Zhou, Y. and Xie, D. (2013) Preparation and evaluation of a novel antibacterial glass-ionomer cement. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 1117-1128. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.612140.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Mjor, I.A., Dahl, J.E. and Moorhead, J.E. (2002) Placement and replacement of restorations in primary teeth. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 60, 25-28.
[2] Forss, H. and Widstrom, E. (2004) Reasons for restorative therapy and longevity of restorations in adults. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 62, 82-86.
[3] Manhart, J., Garcia-Godoy, F. and Hickel, R. (2002) Direct posterior restorations: Clinical results and new developments. Dental Clinics of North America, 46, 303-339.
[4] Deligeorgi, V., Mjor, I.A. and Wilson, N.H. (2001) An overview of reasons for the placement and replacement of restorations. Primary Dental Care, 8, 5-11.
[5] Craig, R.G. and Power, J.M. (2002) Restorative dental materials. 11th Edition, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., St Louis, 614-618.
[6] Wiegand, A., Buchalla, W. and Attin, T. (2007) Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials—Fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation. Dental Materials, 23, 343-362.
[7] Osinaga, P.W., Grande, R.H., Ballester, R.Y., Simionato, M.R., Delgado Rodrigues, C.R. and Muench, A. (2003) Zinc sulfate addition to glass-ionomer-based cements: Influence on physical and antibacterial properties, zinc and fluoride release. Dental Materials, 19, 212-217.
[8] Takahashi, Y., Imazato, S., Kaneshiro, A.V., Ebisu, S., Frencken, J.E. and Tay, F.R. (2006) Antibacterial effects and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine for the ART approach. Dental Materials, 22, 467-452.
[9] Yamamoto, K., Ohashi, S., Aono, M., Kokubo, T., Yamada, I. and Yamauchi, J. (1996) Antibacterial activity of silver ions implanted in SiO2 filler on oral streptococci. Dental Materials, 12, 227-229.
[10] Syafiuddin, T., Hisamitsu, H., Toko, T., Igarashi, T., Goto, N., Fujishima, A. and Miyazaki, T. (1997) In vitro inhibition of caries around a resin composite restoration containing antibacterial filler. Biomaterials, 18, 1051-1057.
[11] Gottenbos, B., van der Mei, H.C., Klatter, F., Nieuwenhuis, P. and Busscher, H.J. (2002) In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of covalently coupled quaternary ammonium silane coatings on silicone rubber. Biomaterials, 23, 1417-1423.
[12] Thebault, P., Taffin de Givenchy, E., Levy, R., Vandenberghe, Y., Guittard, F. and Geribaldi, S. (2009) Preparation and antimicrobial behaviour of quaternary ammonium thiol derivatives able to be grafted on metal surfaces. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 44, 717-724.
[13] Imazato, S., Russell, R.R. and McCabe, J.F. (1995) Antibacterial activity of MDPB polymer incorporated in dental resin. Journal of Dentistry, 23, 177-181.
[14] Murata, H. (2007) Permanent, non-leaching antibacterial surfaces—2: How high density cationic surfaces kill bacterial cells. Biomaterials, 28, 4870-4879.
[15] Lu, G.Q., Wu, D.C. and Fu, R.W. (2007) Studies on the synthesis and antibacterial activities of polymeric quarternary ammonium salts from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 67, 355-366.
[16] Lee, S.B., Koepsel, R.R., Morley, S.W., Matyjaszewski, K., Sun, Y. and Russell, A.J. (2004) Permanent, nonleaching antibacterial surfaces. 1. Synthesis by atom transfer radical polymerization. Biomacromolecules, 5, 877-882.
[17] Li, F., Chai, Z.G., Sun, M.N., Wang, F., Ma, S., Zhang, L., Fang, M. and Chen, J.H. (2009) Anti-biofilm effect of dental adhesive with cationic monomer. Journal of Dental Research, 88, 372-376.
[18] Li, F., Chen, J., Chai, Z., Zhang, L., Xiao, Y., Fang, M. and Ma, S. (2009) Effects of a dental adhesive incorporating antibacterial monomer on the growth, adherence and membrane integrity of Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Dentistry, 37, 289-296.
[19] Beyth, N., Yudovin-Farber, I., Bahir, R., Domb, A.J. and Weiss, E.I. (2006) Antibacterial activity of dental composites containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles against Streptococcus mutans. Biomaterials, 27, 3995-4002.
[20] Chai, Z., Li, F., Fang, M., Wang, Y., Ma, S., Xiao, Y., Huang, L. and Chen, J. (2011) The bonding property and cytotoxicity of a dental adhesive incorporating a new antibacterial monomer. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 38, 849-856.
[21] Ma, S., Izutani, N., Imazato, S., Chen, J.H., Kiba, W., Yoshikawa, R., Takeda, K., Kitagawa, H. and Ebisu, S. (2012) Assessment of bactericidal effects of quaternary ammonium-based antibacterial monomers in combination with colloidal platinum nanoparticles. Dental Materials Journal, 31, 150-156.
[22] Cheng, L., Weir, M.D., Xu, H.H., Antonucci, J.M., Kraigsley, A.M., Lin, N.J., Lin-Gibson, S. and Zhou, X. (2012) Antibacterial amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomposites with a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate and silver nanoparticles. Dental Materials, 28, 561-572.
[23] Cheng, L., Weir, M.D., Zhang, K., Xu, S.M., Chen, Q., Zhou, X. and Xu, H.H. (2012) Antibacterial nanocomposite with calcium phosphate and quaternary ammonium. Journal of Dental Research, 91, 460-466.
[24] Xie, D., Weng, Y., Guo, X., Zhao, J., Gregory, R.L. and Zheng, C. (2011) Preparation and evaluation of a novel glass-ionomer cement with antibacterial functions. Dental Materials, 27, 487-496.
[25] Imazato, S., Ebi, N., Takahashi, Y., Kaneko, T., Ebisu, S. and Russell, R.R.B. (2003) Antibacterial activity of bactericide-immobilized filler for resin-based restoratives. Biomaterials, 24, 3605-3609.
[26] Ebi, N., Imazato, S., Noiri, Y. and Ebisu, S. (2001) Inhibitory effects of resin composite containing bactericideimmobilized filler on plaque accumulation. Dental Materials, 17, 485-491.
[27] Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, C., Patarapanich, C., Fanwick, P.E., Chang, C.J. and Mclaughlin, J.L. (1990) New bioactive heptenes from melodorum fruitcosum (annonaceae). Tetrahedron, 46, 5043-5054.
[28] Jones, J.B. and Young, J.M. (1968) Carcinogenicity of lactones III: The reactions of unsaturated 4-lactones with l-cysteine. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 1176.
[29] Lattmann, E., Dunn, S., Niamsanit, S. and Sattayasai, N. (2005) Synthesis and antibacterial activities of 5-hydroxy4-amino-2(5H)-furanones. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 15, 919-921.
[30] Lattmann, E., Coombs, J. and Hoffmann, H.M.R. (1996) Paranofuranones via lewis acid mediated hetero-dielsalder reactions of 4-Furan-2(5H)-ones. A convergent route to the manoalide substructure. Synthesis, 171-177.
[31] Martinelli, D., Grossmann, G., Sequin, U., Brandl, H. and Bachofen, R. (2004) Effects of natural and chemically synthesized furanones on quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum. BMC Microbiology, 4, 25.
[32] Xie, D., Weng, Y. and Zhao, J. (2009) Alternative methacrylate-tethering methods for resin-modified glass-ionomer cements. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 111, 869-875.
[33] Wu, W., Xie, D., Puckett, A. and Mays, J. (2003) Synthesis and formulation of vinyl-containing polyacids for improved light-cured glass-ionomer cements. European Polymer Journal, 39, 663-670.
[34] Xie, D., Yang, Y., Zhao, J., Park, J.G. and Zhang, J.T. (2007) A novel comonomer-free light-cured glass-ionomer system for reduced cytotoxicity and enhanced mechanical strength. Dental Materials, 23, 994-1003.
[35] Cattani-Lorente, M.A., Dupuis, V., Moya, F., Payan, J. and Meyer, J.-M. (1999) Comparative study of the physical properties of a polyacid-modified composite resin and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Dental Materials, 15, 21-32.
[36] Davidson, C.L. and Mjor, I.A. (1999) Advances in glass— Ionomer cements. Quintessence Publishing Co, Chicago.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.