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Effects of Sea Level Variation on Biological and Chemical Concentrations in a Coastal Upwelling Ecosystem

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411A008    4,339 Downloads   6,248 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Oscillations in sea level due to meteorological forces related to wind and pressure affect the regular tides and modify the sea level conditions, mainly in restricted waters such as bays. Investigations surrounding these variations and the biological and chemical response are important for monitoring coastal regions mainly where upwelling shelf systems occur. A spatial and temporal database from Quick Scatterometer satellite vector wind, surface stations from the Southeast coast of Brazil and surface seawater data collected in Anjos Bay, Arraial do Cabo city, northeast of Rio de Janeiro State were used to investigate the meteorological influences in the variability of the dissolved oxygen, nutrients, meroplankton larvae and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Clustering Analysis (CA) were applied to verify spatial and temporal variances. A correlation matrix was also verified for different water masses in order to identify the relationship between the above parameters. A seasonal variability of the meteorological residual presents a well-defined pattern with maximum peaks in autumn/winter and minimum during spring/summer with negative values, period of occurrence of upwelling in this region. This lowering of the sea level is in accordance with the increasing of nutrients and meroplankton larvae for the same period. CA showed six groups and an importance of the zonal and meridional wind variability, including these variables in a single cluster. PCA retained eight components, explaining 64.10% of the total variance of data set. Some clusters and loadings have the same variables, showing the importance of the sea-air interaction.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Oliveira, G. Pereira, J. Oliveira and N. Ebecken, "Effects of Sea Level Variation on Biological and Chemical Concentrations in a Coastal Upwelling Ecosystem," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 11A, 2013, pp. 61-76. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.411A008.

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